Saturday, August 31, 2019
THE THIRD LEG IN THE STRATEGY TRIPOD Ã¢â¬â Institutional Based View Introduction Strategy has come to play a significant role in international business (IB) in recent times. This is predicated on the fact of complexities associated with globalisation. The interplay of various factors of production in an environment could have been sufficient for MNEs in taking investment decisions. However, experience has shown otherwise. In this light, strategising in the international business arena has been dominated by industry and resource based views, somewhat ignoring the magnitude of institutional impact on investment decisions.EVALUATION OF Ã¢â¬ËTHE THIRD LEG IN THE STRATEGY Ã¢â¬Å"TRIPODÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â¢ According to Peng et al (2008), citing Porter(1980) Barney (1991) the industry-based view is rooted in the assumption that the strategy employed by MNEs is determined by the conditions within the industry of focus. Also, the resource based view tends to narrow performance and internation al business strategy to resources in specific firms. The aggregated views are functions of research findings carried out in environments whose institutions are seemingly standardised and stable.Meanwhile these views have not been able to deal with the nagging questions posed by strategy as regards investment locations. Recent research directions have established remarkable differences in the institutional frameworks of emerging economies relative to developed economies. This is largely due to long history of cultural, legal and political platforms that organise their businesses. According to Peng et al (2008), the effect of these formal and informal institutions are quite remarkable in shaping strategies and performance even in developed economies.This may not have come to the front burner without recent research on the relationship between institutions and organisational strategies in emerging economies. Peng et al (2008) are of the view that earlier approach to international IB st rategy did not offer institutions appropriate place in the strategy discourse. In furtherance to this, Peng et al (2008) argue that the institutions should actually be recognised as the third leg in the strategy tripod. The other legs being resource based and industry based views.Let us explore the institutions and how they impact IB strategies. In understanding an institution, the renowned Economist Searle (2005 pp. 21) defines an institution as Ã¢â¬Ëany collectively accepted system of rules (procedures, practices) that enable us to create institutional factsÃ¢â¬â¢. It follows that the institutions set the rules for doing business in any environment. As such an MNE is only going to be successful where it understands, assimilates and applies the rules of the environment for competitive advantage.Peng et alÃ¢â¬â¢s (2008) argument on the institutional view of strategy focuses on legal, social and political aspects as these have been found to change quite significantly in emergin g economies upon both internal and external impacts. EFFECTIVENESS OF THE FOUR CASES OFFERED IN SUPPORTING THE CENTRAL ARGUMENT Peng et al (2008) posit that in transacting business in a developed economy, the supporting institutions operate albeit silently at the background. This is in contrast to the situation in emerging economies where the weight of institutions plays visible roles in consummating transactions.These visible roles have tendencies to alter the business equation in favour of MNEs who have taken proactive steps in influencing the institutional outcomes. Place this fact side by side the growing importance of emerging economies, it becomes imperative that institutional view of strategy becomes as important as the traditional views. Emerging economies like China and India are great examples where institutionsÃ¢â¬â¢ actions and inactions play great roles in balancing the IB strategy tripod. Growing The Firm In ChinaPeng et al (2008) note that it is puzzling to see Chin a growing economically in the midst of underdeveloped institutional framework. This growth could not have taken place on the strength of the industry and resource based views alone. Peering deeply, Peng et al (2008) Wong (2012) recognise the cultural influences that abound in Chinese business climate which border on social and family networks otherwise referred to as guanxi. This may have phenomenally replaced the formal institution, as such affects the success of businesses within the environment.Peng et al (2008) suggest that in economic environments where institutions are week, norms and cognition take over as game changers. This highlights the import of institution based view in IB strategies. Competing In And Out Of India The meteoric rise of India in the area of IT and Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) was attributed to resource and industry based view of IB strategy (Peng et al 2008). These views are based on the opinion that cheap labour, excellent skills and virtuality are major factors responsible for their growth.Nonetheless, institutional considerations are found to be quite relevant in IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s context. Considerations in the areas of education subsidy to top Universities and various economic reforms including liberalisation by government institutions played crucial roles in making India a competitive environment for investments (Peng et al 2008). These institutional references can conveniently stand as the third tripod of the IB strategy. Antidumping As Entry Barriers Market-based variables as noted by Peng et al (2008) have been alleged as the basic entry barriers in IB.Meanwhile non market based institutional variables have been largely ignored in IB startegies.. Trade barriers have come to play important roles in IB strategies. Countries in protecting their local business players against foreign competition usually set up institutional policies aimed at stemming imports by foreign MNEs. These MNEs are alleged to compete unfavourably thro ugh the process of dumping. Davis (2009) citing the 1947 GATT agreement defines dumping as a situation where goods originating from a country are imported into another country at less than normal values.The use of anti-dumping laws by developed countries against MNEs from developing countries is a good example of how an institutional policy could be a tool of trade barrier in IB. Western countries have used this tool of protectionism against competition from Asia quite effectively. The issue here is that when market-based forces fail, antidumping laws could be deployed by local firms to ward off MNEs, thus firming the position of institutional based view as the third leg in the IB strategy tripod. Governing The Corporation In Emerging Economies Corporate governance is highly a determinant in firm performance in developed countries.This is due to the fact that the agency theory focuses on separation of ownership and control. These are exemplified by principal-manager conflicts (Peng et al 2008) quite unlike a lot of emerging economies where principal-principal conflict is the norm. The ability of an MNE to invest in such an environment would mean understanding the value and complexities of concentrated ownership and strategising accordingly. CONCLUSION It is evident from the work of Peng et al (2008) and other researchers that institution-based view has come to occupy the third leg of the IB strategy discourse.It is pertinent to note that the emergence of the institution based view does not in any way diminish the importance of the traditional based views in IB strategy. Instead it complements the traditional views, thus balancing the IB strategy in form of a tripod. It is my opinion that this tripod leverages on industry-based view, resource-based view and institutional-based view for balance. While Peng et al (2008) referenced most of their arguments on developing economies, the institutional effects are found to be applicable in developed countries as well. References Davis L. 2009) Ã¢â¬ËTen years of anti-dumping in the EU: economic and political targetingÃ¢â¬â¢. ECIPE Working Paper Ã¢â¬ ¢ No. 02/2009 (Online) Available from: http://www. ecipe. org/media/publication_pdfs/ten-years-of-anti-dumping-in-the-eu-economic-and-political-targeting. pdf (Accessed September 26, 2012) Peng, M. W. , Wang, D. Y. L. & Jiang, Y. (2008) Ã¢â¬ËAn institution-based view of international business strategy: A focus on emerging economiesÃ¢â¬â¢,Journal of International Business Studies,Ã 39 (5), July/August, pp. 920Ã¢â¬â936. (Online) Available at: http://dx. doi. org. ezproxy. liv. ac. k/doi:10. 1057/palgrave. jibs. 8400377 (Accessed September 23) Searle J. (2005) Ã¢â¬ËWhat is an institution? Ã¢â¬â¢ Journal of Institutional Economics (2005), 1: 1, 1Ã¢â¬â22 (Online) Available from: http://www. laisumedu. org/DESIN_Ibarra/desin/pdf-seminario2006/seminario-2006-04d. pdf (Accessed September 24, 2012) Wong J. (2012) Ã¢â¬ËThe Guanxi Strategie s of Taiwanese Firms in ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s Economic ReformsÃ¢â¬â¢ The Journal of Global Business Management Volume 8 * Number 1 * February 2012. (Online) Available at: http://www. jgbm. org/page/15%20Jeng-Min%20Wong. pdf (Accessed September 24, 2012)
Friday, August 30, 2019
Theories pertaining to concepts of management were developed by Max Weber, Henri Fayol, and Elton Mayo. Management is the central component to an organized view on what each theory encompasses, the contributions and how the theories differ and even complementary factors. Individual contributions to management theories impact organizational power as well as the society and state which the ideas are focused. The legacy of theses theories will continue to shape business in the present and future. Organizational theory is designed to understand the nature of the organization. By which organizations can evaluate its overall business by putting the right structure and operate in different ways. Organizational theory also helps us understand how processes such as change and decision making can be managed. It deals with different structures and cultures such as large organizations have different structures and cultures than small ones, and the manufacturing organizations operate in a differe nt way than those in the service sector. (Burton & Obel, 1984) Frederick Taylor composed the principles of scientific management in the early nineteenth century, which marked the beginning of modern management theory (Robbins, 2000). The theory influenced management and has the greatest impact because of the insistence on application of scientific method. Furthermore, managers relied upon instinct and intuition as the source of constructive ides and information but the scientific method provided a formulation for conscious analysis. Max Weber contributed to management theory that within a bureaucratic system the organization was continuous bond of rules and the hierarchical arrangement is where one level was subject to control by theÃ level above. Bureaucracy lends to the notion of society becoming more integrated and more complex. Organizations have become more dependent on specialists and experts for advice and for influence. In the managerial perspective, democracy is seen as a consequence of elite competition (Alford and Friedland1985,). Henri Fayol, an industrialist divided the management structure into six basic groups, technical, commercial, financial, security, accounting and managerial activities. The six categories or groups are not absolute but can be manipulated according to purpose and need. Fourteen general principles of management were developed such as organize, delegate, staff, control, co- ordinate, lead and budget, your organization will prosper with efficiency and effectiveness therefore br inging great productivity. An administrative principle is a major contribution because this creates a narrower process of developing and maintaining procedures. The principle gives clear structure and rules and takes into consideration the changing environment and it applies to the organization, powers, duties and information that sets each organization apart and the basis for which all employees can be trained. A rigid form of rules and power being still govern any organizations so that uniformity can be established. Bureaucratic organizations have become more of a necessary function to the advancement of the economy and society at large because some cities and towns are dependant upon the economic benefits. The advance of large scale corporations with more coordination within markets forces our government to become more bureaucratic because businesses have become informal controllers and dictators. The inevitability of bureaucracies handle increased industrialization reflects the functional emphasis within the concept of management. Frederick Taylor and Henri Fayol are both considered classical contributors to management theory. Developers of an expressionist viewpoint during a period when the aim was elevating the standards of management within the industry that was veiled but instead created a balance and established equity (Brodie, 1967). The two theorists provided the few publications and theories on management. Both theories were developed under the same influencing factors such as war, social struggles and industrial revolution (Urwick. 1951, p7), however each developed different management theories and instructions and vantage points. Scientific management and he developed scientific principles of management, focusing on the individual,Ã rather than the team and aimed to improve efficiency through production-line time studies, breaking each job down into its components and designing the quickest and best methods of performing each component. Fayol provided insight on the human reaction and identified needs of the individually and that work can be tailored based on intelligence, background and abilities. Taylor focused on the total organization rather than the individual worker, outlining the management functions of planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling. The theories proposed by Fayol and Mayo differ greatly in all areas. Fayol concentrated on management functions and attempted to generate a boarder perspective and on principles that would serve as guidelines for the rationalization of organizational activities and looked at an organization as a whole (Scott, 1992). Mayo focused on motivation techniques and individual satisfaction. Fayol directed attention on areas such as the production process and adjusted humans to this process, versus MayoÃ¢â¬â¢s human relations approach emphasized the coordination of human and social elements in an organization by following concept such as * Consultation, * Participation * Communication and leadership. The employee of an organization is seen as a machine in FayolÃ¢â¬â¢s theory rather than an important part of the organization. EmployeeÃ¢â¬â¢s needs according to Mayo are based on the idea that workers are happy they will be more productive. Theories proposed by Fayol and Mayo differ greatly in all areas. Fayol emphasized management functions and attempted to generate broad administrative principles that would serve as guidelines for the rationalization of organizational activities (Scott, 1992) and looked at an organization as a whole. Mayo focused on motivation techniques and individual satisfaction. Fayol emphasized the production process and adjusted humans to this process that included relational approach emphasized the coordination of human and social element. Characteristics of bureaucracy Weber believed that all large organizations would over time assume more bureaucratic characteristics. These characteristics were one a high degree of division of labor, two a hierarchy of authority, three theÃ use of formal written documents and files, 4 the expert training of organizational members, five decisions guided by written rules and procedures, and 6 an impersonality in human relationships. Division of Labor: The organization, according to Weber, was broken down into separate units with their areas of responsibility officially established by organizational policy. Similar to Administrative ManagementÃ¢â¬â¢s concept of departmentalization, Weber proposed that such specialization by organizational units led to greater efficiency. The people involved would only need to be trained in a limited area of knowledge. They could learn their jobs faster and thus perform more efficiently. 2. Hierarchy of Authority. Like Fayol, Weber noted that when the organization was divided into separate units, their activities needed to be coordinated by a hierarchy of graded levels of authorit y. This authority, according to Weber, was rational-legal, resting on a belief by the members of the organization that those people occupying higher positions had a right to issue commands to those occupying lower levels. The authority resided in the legally established and impersonal Ã¢â¬Å"officesÃ¢â¬ (job positions), not in the people themselves. Weber contrasted this rational form of authority with the non-bureaucratic traditional authority based upon loyalty to the person of the chief or monarch. In order for an organization to continue operating for many years, it must become somewhat independent not only of the people who founded it, but also of the people who managed its activities. The extensive use of formal, written documents in everyday activity and a sophisticated filing system was the characteristic giving the bureaucratic organization certain immortality. People could come and go in specific jobs over time but the bureaucratic organization continued to function efficiently with minimal problems. The knowledge of past events, along with the power that it conveyed, belonged to the specific position (in the filing cabinet) and was only temporarily used by the person holding the position . Anyone new to a particular position could learn what actions had been taken and decisions made by the previous person in the job by going to the relevant files. Expert Training: Weber envisioned that the specialization of positions would enable people to be trained more thoroughly in a narrow range of activities. Employees would be hired and promoted based upon merit and expertise. Decisions and Operations Guided ByÃ Written Rules and Procedures. A key characteristic of bureaucracy was the idea that an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s employees followed written rules, which were assumed to be generally stable. The use of rules and procedures made the organization more efficient because they made peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior more predictable and reliable. Rules served not only to make the organization independent of any one individual over time, but also to ensure that actions and decisions made in different parts of the organization were consistent at any given time. Human variability was reduced. In any given set of circumstances, anywhere or anytime in the organization, the same decision would be made and the same actions taken as long as the rules wer e followed. Impersonality from WeberÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view, the very impersonality of bureaucracy was a significant improvement over earlier forms of organization. By applying rules and controls impersonally, involvement with personalities and personal preferences was avoided. Employees and customers of a bureaucracy were not considered as individuals but as members of categories. This helped to ensure fair and unbiased treatment according to law Ã¢â¬â the policies and standard procedures of the organization. Managers were constrained by the same impersonal network of rules as were their subordinates. Actions and decisions could no longer be justified on the basis of personal opinion or on tradition. Bureaucratic Management based on WeberÃ¢â¬â¢s description of bureaucracy has been criticized by a number of scholars in the area; there is agreement that he made a significant impact on the field of management and the study of organizations. Unlike Fayol, however, Weber did not recommend a new system of management for others to follow and imitate. Merely described what he saw as the inevitable movement by organizations to become increasingly bureaucratic over time. An over developed bureaucratic mechanism in comparison with other organizations conflicts with the non-mechanical modes of production and allows dominance and could cause a monopoly. Legacy of Traditional Management Traditional Management, as it is now known, was formed out of Scientific Management, Administrative Management, and Bureaucratic Management. By the mid-twentieth century, the use of Scientific Management techniques and Administrative Management principles within a rationally structured bureaucratic organization became the accepted way of managing large organizations. Based upon some key assumptions from classical economics regarding economic man, division of labor, and profit maximization, the concepts, techniques, and prescriptions of Traditional Management succeeded in producing a large number of standardized products and serving a large number of customers with similar needs. Traditional Management seemed incapable of dealing effectively with changing conditions. The best of traditional management found themselves, in the second half of the twentieth century, floundering in the face of more flexible competition with different ideas of managing. The use of traditional managementÃ¢â¬â¢s prescriptions and techniques resulted in dysfunctional as well as functional consequences for organizational performance. The functional consequences outweighed the dysfunctional consequences; organizations following the traditional approach were very successful. In the early 1900s in North America and Europe, for example, business corporations operated very efficiently and made huge profits selling valued products and services. The dysfunctional consequences present at that time were too few in number and too small in size to overwhelm the vast amount of functional consequences. For example, the epitome of Scientific Management, Henry FordÃ¢â¬â¢s moving assembly line, created jobs in the 1920s for thousands of unskilled workers at double ($5/day) the current wage for similar work. It produced the first automobile affordable by the average person. The jobs may have been monotonous, but worker boredom did not keep the Model T and the Ford Motor Company from becoming a great success story. As time passed, however, and Traditional Management became more institutionalized in large organizations, the dysfu nctional consequences began to increase in number and in size. Organizational performance and productivity increased at a fast rate from 1900 to 1950. After 1950, however, the rate of performance improvement began to slow. An increasing use of Scientific Management assembly lines and bureaucratic procedures appeared to result in less and less of a performance increase. Like heroin, increasing the use of Traditional Management practices seemed to result in a smaller amount of desirable outcomes. It is suggested here that the continued and even increasing use of Traditional Management practices without significant modification in the face of a fast-changing world contributed to the decline in organizational performance. TheÃ dysfunctional consequences of Traditional Management began to accumulate to such an extent that they finally outweighed the functional consequences. Organizational effectiveness and efficiency stopped improving and profits began to decline in the face of aggressive Japanese competition The concept that has the greatest utility by Traditional Management on standardization of the production process as well as the product meant that there could be no room for human variability. The emphasis on rules, principles, and the Ã¢â¬Å"one best wayÃ¢â¬ meant that the behavior of employees must be uniform and predictable if maximum efficiency was to be attained. The basic assumption underlying Traditional Management about the motivation of people stemmed from the concept of economic man. People were expected to behave rationally. Rational people were supposedly motivated by their own economic self-interest. Weber and Fayol did not directly emphasize economic incentives, traditional management generally assumed that employees wanted to earn the most money for the least work. Traditional Management expected employees to be motivated to do very specialized standardized jobs simply because of the workersÃ¢â¬â¢ strong need for money. Bibliography Brodie, M. (1967) Fayol on Administration. Mowbray & Co, Oxford. Burton, R. M. & Obel, B. (1984) Designing Efficient Organizations: Modeling and Experimentation, North Holland, Amsterdam Robbins, S.P., Bergman. Stagg, I & Coulter, M. (2000), Management, (2nd Edn) Prentice Hall Scott, W. R. (1992). Organizations: Rational, Natural, and Open Systems. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs. Australia Pry Ltd Taylor, F. (1947) scientific management: comprising Shop management. The principles of scientific management and Testimony before the special House committee. Harper, New York. Urwick, L., Brech, E. (1951) The Making of Scientific Management. Pitman & Sons, London.
Quantitative Analysis for Business Final E Progress: (0/30) 1) The main purpose of descriptive statistics is to A. summarize data in a useful and informative manner B. make inferences about a population C. determine if the data adequately represents the population D. gather or collect data 2) The general process of gathering, organizing, summarizing, analyzing, and interpreting data is called A. statistics B. descriptive statistics C. inferential statistics D. levels of measurement 3) The performance of personal and business investments is measured as a percentage, return on investment. What type of variable is return on investment?A. Qualitative B. Continuous C. Attribute D. Discrete 4) What type of variable is the number of robberies reported in your city? A. Attribute B. Continuous C. Discrete D. Qualitative 5) What level of measurement is the number of auto accidents reported in a given month? A. Nominal B. Ordinal C. Interval D. Ratio 6) The names of the positions in a corporati on, such as chief operating officer or controller, are examples of what level of measurement? A. Nominal B. Ordinal C. Interval D. Ratio 7) Shoe sizes, such as 7B, 10D, and 12EEE, are examples of what level of measurement? A. Nominal B. Ordinal C. Interval D. Ratio ) Monthly commissions of first-year insurance brokers are $1,270, $1,310, $1,680, $1,380, $1,410, $1,570, $1,180, and $1,420. These figures are referred to as A. a histogram B. raw data C. frequency distribution D. frequency polygon 9) A small sample of computer operators shows monthly incomes of $1,950, $1,775, $2,060, $1,840, $1,795, $1,890, $1,925, and $1,810. What are these ungrouped numbers called? A. Histogram B. Class limits C. Class frequencies D. Raw data 10) The sum of the deviations of each data value from this measure of central location will always be 0. A. Mode B. Mean C. Median D. Standard deviation
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Should we cry for Argentina - Essay Example In recent times, Argentinians have suffered from the decline in economic standings (Farzard, 2010). This paper will review the crisis the country faces, and what they are doing to ensure they get through the situation. Local companies present at the time can attest to the situation that existed. They could not send money abroad for many of their financial activities. This was because the central bank had to give approval on these transactions in order to maintain some of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s capital. The blame game continued between the government and financial agencies while the economy continued to plummet. As the Argentinian peso was losing its value, it became obvious that the situation was getting from poor to worse. Some of the stringent measures included seizing the citizensÃ¢â¬â¢ cash in order to regulate how they withdrew money from their bank accounts was introduced (Farzard, 2010). This led to countrywide protests against such moves by the government, and what it meant to their freedom. Business operations were brought to a standstill through all the commotion as banks were attacked. The raising of taxation through government policies made it harder for businesses to grow and expand. This implied that all those involved in the transportation of goods and services, whether local or foreign, were affected immensely (Farzard, 2010). Coming across funds to pay foreign suppliers became harder for the local traders, and their businesses. This led to the dipping in the local market for local goods. The collapse of the economy brought plenty of trouble for the Argentinian government. It became hard to fulfil the needs of the people as many more people seemed to suffer from poverty. Inflation levels grew to a high level and employment was for only a few people in Argentina. As all these problems continued to engulf Argentina, their hope to get themselves out of debt was dwindling. This is as
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Welfare, a Broken System - Essay Example This essay discusses that the policy of most states, given their new discretionary powers, is and will continue to be to Ã¢â¬ËpersuadeÃ¢â¬â¢ women off welfare roles and to work outside of the home, many times well outside the home, with no regard as to their familiesÃ¢â¬â¢ needs. Because of federal budgetary constraints, the safety net of welfare benefits and programs such as Medicare that assist impoverished children is expected to diminish. The welfare system as it stands today is lacking in resources and innovative methods by which to alleviate child poverty despite the extensive welfare restructuring in the U.S. and its continued expansion. It would be a gross understatement to declare that the U.S. welfare system does not compare to European countries. Most countries in Europe have opposing views to those in the U.S. regarding the virtues of a comprehensive welfare system. The U.S. version of welfare largely subsists in the temporary benefits provided to a fraction of the most impoverished of families. Other monetary benefits to families are practically nonexistent. By contrast, in Sweden and Germany for example, benefits are made available to all citizens regardless of earnings. It is a cruel irony. The U.S. is the most powerful economic society in the history of the world yet is not willing to ease the miseries of those in desperate poverty residing within its own borders. European countries that have had their economies decimated by two world wars over the last hundred years yet still take care of their own.
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Code of Ethics - Research Paper Example The issues have always been whether to disclose such information and to whom. For instance, is it proper to place critical loggers on devices on the network to capture all that the user types? Or say so as to see all that is shown screen capture programs those are some of privacy ethical issues that have been of concern. The other ethical issue has been promising more than they can deliver or even taking advantage of clientÃ¢â¬â¢s ignorance to charge more fees through data manipulation. Today, IT organization can install technology to make clientÃ¢â¬â¢s network more secure but not very secure in reality. Yet there has been the dilemma of whether to replace the present firewall just to have more billable hours. Some firms promising more than they can actually achieve to gain reputation. The final loyalty has been connected to loyalty. IT organizations with contacts for multiple clients have ethical issues to deal with. For example, should they obtain information about one of their clients that can directly affect the other client, where should their loyalty
Monday, August 26, 2019
Life in the U.S - Essay Example Despite the current law enforcement strategies and awareness programs, the issue has turned to be a serious behavioral problem among adolescents. As per the findings of Holm et al (27), 80% of all smokers in the United States begin smoking even before the age of 18. With increased threat to health and personal integrity, the prohibition of teenage smoking has become the most essential legal concern. In the United States, there is no unified regulation on this issue and the minimum age restriction varies from state to state. Although Ã¢â¬Ë18Ã¢â¬â¢ is generally accepted as the minimum age, the decision is subjected to the discretion of states. According to the statistics of National Cancer Institute, tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable illness and death in the United States. The illness includes cancers of the throat, mouth, nasal cavity, stomach, kidney etc. The study also says that Ã¢â¬Å"smokers are six times more likely to suffer heart attack than non-smokersÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Ëin 2009 around 20.6 percent of U.S. adults were cigarette smokersÃ¢â¬â¢ (National Cancer Institute). Works Cited Holm, Nancy. Holm, Jeffrey et al. Ã¢â¬Å"Youth Tobacco Use Prevention ProgramsÃ¢â¬ . Adolescent Smoking and Health Research (Ed. Lapointe, Martin). US: Nova Publishers, 2008. Print. Ã¢â¬Å"SmokingÃ¢â¬ .
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Probation and punish - Essay Example However, later the sentence got suspended and instead the convict was ordered to undergo probation under a probation officer. The officer was entitled to supervise all the activities of the convict. The officer was supposed to report pertaining to the regular activities of the convict after three months. The crime that was committed by Kris was not considered to be very grave but it was made compulsory that the convict needed to undergo a strict probationary programme under Robert Donovan who is a probationary officer as referred in this particular case (Scheb, II, 2011). The results from the file review match RobertÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions as he was given the charge to ensure proper probationary training. Robert was specialized in this field. Moreover, a probation plan was the need of the hour (Scheb, II, 2011). The instance in which Robert is considered to initiate the probation program and RobertÃ¢â¬â¢s discussions regarding the intricacies of probation proved to be very appropriate a nd similar (Scheb, II, 2011). However, the convictÃ¢â¬â¢s activity was considered to be illegal but the 1 year sentence got cancelled which was not very appropriate and also probation program did not allow proper punishment to the convict. Taking into consideration these aspects, RobertÃ¢â¬â¢s views cannot be considered as similar (Scheb, II, 2011). ... In fact, he possessed criminal intentions which required immediate attention (Lippman, 2009). Moreover, he was found to commit an attempt of theft which is a very serious offence. An immediate precaution that could be taken to prevent these negative instances would be to ensure a tight supervision that will be possible with the induction of an appropriate probation program that is needed to be put in place (Lippman, 2009). In addition, putting a criminal behind the bars for a long period of time for an attempt to theft may raise controversies from various supporters of the convict. Many may not find it logical to put a convict under a prison for such instances and activities. Therefore, the best thing to do is to initiate a probation program instead (Lippman, 2009). Question 3: Cruel and unusual punishment is a kind of chastisement that has been amended by the United States constitution. It is considered to be a very strict punishment that is imposed on the serious offenders of law. This includes serious retributions that generally take place in the form of degradation or torture. At times, the severity of punishment becomes even high as compared to the graveness of the crime that is committed (Lippman, 2009). Correctional facility is essentially a punishment in which the offenders are punished as per the graveness of the crimes that are committed. Serious punishment is imposed to those who commit serious crimes i.e. felonies. However, short-term punishment is imposed on the individuals who are not responsible for most hideous crimes. The sentence is pronounced after judging the graveness of the crimes that are committed.
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Qestions related to Public Sector Managemnt - Assignment Example However, as the complexity of society grew, the state found itself in a situation in which it was increasingly required to engage in a litany of different social services. The evolution that Ian Chaston defines is one that is contingent upon a state that found itself increasingly involved in the lives of its citizens. However, rather than understanding this as a process that was not directed or focused, Chaston points the reader to the understanding that the ability to vote and the democratic process itself was one of the guiding mechanisms through which a degree of socialism came to be represented throughout society. Depending on the nation that is analyzed, the degree of socialism that exists within Western governments varies; however, it is broadly accepted that the state should have a direct level of impact with regards to the degree and extent of social services and representative safety net that exists for the unfortunate poor within the society. Coming to the realization that the entire society was predicated upon the strength of its middle class, the degree and extent to which government involvement could support this middle class and develop into a degree of further profitability was one of the main determinants that policymakers viewed with respect to redefining social integration throughout the years. 2.Per Bao et.al. "Beyond New Public Governance; A Value - Based Global Framework for Performance Management" What are the basic characteristics of "New Public Management" (NPM) and of "New Public Governance" (NPG) which has emerged in response to the limitations of NPM? Answered According to Bao et al. Ã¢â¬Å"Beyond New Public Governance: A Value-Based Global Framework for Performance ManagementÃ¢â¬ , and new Public management is a term that can most broadly be understood as denoting a range of government policies that work to
Friday, August 23, 2019
The impact of teacher collaboration on student academic achivement compared to the impact of non-collaboration of teachers on s - Research Paper Example The researcher will use the subject checkpoints and the district interim test and observe them as they collaborate. The observation method would be conducted at the Clifton Middle school located in 6001 Golden Forest, Houston, Texas. The aim of the descriptive research is to verify formulated hypothesis (there will be significant impact of teacher collaboration on student academic achievement as compared to the impact of non-collaboration of teachers on student academic achievement) that refer to the present situation in order to evaluate it. Research Procedure The research study is proposed to be conducted in Clifton Middle school located in 6001 Golden Forest, Houston, Texas. A simple observation method would be applied aiming to solicit response from the teachers to validate and support the identified hypothesis. In case there are points of deviation, proposed interviews would be scheduled and conducted to clarify points of contentions. The comparative analysis that would be devel oped after the observation would be conducted in the subject areas of the subject areas in math, science, arts and social studies on how teachers collaborate to determine how their collaboration affects student achievement. As previously noted the researcher will use the subject checkpoints and the district interim test and observe them as they collaborate. The possibility of applying the observation method to the faculty members assigned on the indicated subjects of the school is proposed to solicit comprehensive information on the perception and practice of teacher collaboration on the relevant population. Initial tabulation of results would be made to verify if there are points of deviation that need to be clarified. In this case, the specific teachers providing responses that caused significant deviations would be scheduled for interview to sort out the issues and clarify points of review. Population Selection and Demographics Clifton Middle School enrolls 1,070 middle school st udents from grades 6 to 8. The head school administrator, Ms Beverly Teal, oversees the school's large faculty, including sixty-five full-time "equivalent" teachers serving the student body with an average class size of 16.3. The majority of students enrolled are Hispanic, making up about sixty-four percent of all students. To comply with the objective of the study, the whole population of 65 teachers would be observed as they teach and conduct instructions on the subjects above mentioned. Sample Size The sample size is the size of the population, comprised of all the faculty members of the school, totaling 65 in all. With an average class of 16.3 students, the researcher would observe teachers as they conduct their classes on the subjects of math, science, arts and social studies and determine how teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ collaboration affects student achievement by comparing results of district interim tests with subject checkpoints. Instrument Design As indicated the instruments to
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Ethical and Legal Issues in the Workplace - Essay Example In this age of globalization it is believed that a diverse workforce increases the effectiveness of an organization but it is also realized that the issues related to HRD need to be tackled efficiently by the HRM. HRD improves the business performance by harnessing the individual talents of the employees from diverse background. The talents are no more limited to a particular demographic group and a diverse culture in workplace enhances organizational potential by exploiting individual potentials. Therefore, HR managers need to promote positive relationship among the employees of diverse background for both individual and organizational growth and performance. HRD is beneficial for organizations in many ways but it poses many threats and challenges also for the organization and HR managers need to have insight for these threats and challenges to harness the benefits of diverse workforce ( Balogun, 2003 ). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Diversity is increasing with time and presently 25% of the American workforce is represented by a foreign-born or a minority and women comprise almost half of the workforce. The increasing trend of diversity in workplace has influenced the human resource management and development in an organization substantially posing specific issues and challenges for hiring, management, development, and/or retention practices. The aim of the paper is to address to these issues and challenges. For this objective, a case study of Ã¢â¬Å"Managing diversity at Cityside Financial ServicesÃ¢â¬ Ã is done in the paper and specifically one ethical and one legal issue to strategic talent management and development is described for better understanding of the issues and recommendations for tackling those issues and challenges by the human resource management are also made in the paper ( Balogun, 2003 ). Ã Ã Ã Ã Diversity in workplace is beneficial in many ways for organizations, but it poses some
Against Smoking Essay Ã¢â¬Å"Life is too shortÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å" you only live onceÃ¢â¬ are phrases you always hear from your parents, grandparents and other people whenever they come up with those boring Ã¢â¬Ëin my dayÃ¢â¬â¢ stories, arenÃ¢â¬â¢t they? So why waste the one life you get, and shorten the already too short with the expensive, pointless and revolting habit of smoking? Smoking is the habit that I consider to be pointless, a waste of money and dangerous to your health and social life. Smoking really is the one thing I loathe and with it causing a staggering 110,000 unnecessary premature deaths a year I strongly believe it should be banished to room 101 eternally. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not that bigger deal is what you might be thinking now but wait until you hear the stomach churning, blood-curdling and spine chilling effects smoking has on you and everyone around you, they are what some call Ã¢â¬ËHair-raisersÃ¢â¬â¢. ?1. billion is what our nationÃ¢â¬â¢s worst habit is costing the NHS every year, with 50 diseases and illnesses linked to smoking, 20 of which can be fatal in percentage of cases. When you and your family have to pay the extortionate amount of tax, this is surely not what you wanted a percentage of it to be going towards. YouÃ¢â¬â¢re hard earned pay going towards people feeding their deathly addiction with what is an expensive death wish in the form of a stick of cancer and fatal diseases. ?1,700 is what an average smoker spends on cigarettes each year. Every cigarette lasts just two minutes and takes 11 minute off of your life, whilst imagine having ? 1,700 to go on a shopping spree with. It could last you years of fashionable outfits whilst smoking could cost you years of agonizing symptoms from the illnesses you could end up being faced with, besides surely the Ã¢â¬Ësmoking killsÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ësmoking is harmful to healthÃ¢â¬â¢ messages on the back of many cigarette and tobacco packets reminds smokers of the consequences of smoking and it would surely put people off smoking, but no they just carry on. Too add to this the addictive drug in a cigarette is also used as an insecticide, so if it is used to kill insects then just visualize what it might do to your lungs, not nice is it? Smoking doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t just affect you it affects the people around you as well. 17,000 children under the age of five are admitted to hospital with illnesses such as pneumonia, asthma, bronchitis and infections such as ear, throat and chest infections. Innocent children having to pay the price for inconsiderate people who selfishly smoke around them. It really is not fair. Additionally children who grow up in families of smokers have 50% more chance of being tobacco users when they are older than children brought up in a smoke free environment. Many times my friends and I have had to choose between suffocating in cigarette smoke and holding our breathes for, well too long whilst our eyes water from the smoke, smudging all our make-up just before meeting up with some friends in town as we have to walk by a ginormous group of selfish youths smoking because they think it makes them look cool. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t for the record and it also smells really, really bad. Who would want to be friends with someone whose hair, clothes and house smells like stale tobacco smoke? Not me, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s for sure. Why on earth do people think their cool if they smoke IN joke shops they even sell fake cigarettes that look lit, just so people can pretend theyÃ¢â¬â¢re smoking. But really it does not look cool and 40% of 16 year olds feel pressured into smoking by their friends and peers. Why should young people have to worry about being asked to have a smoke next time they go out with their friends when really they should be concentrating on school and GCSEÃ¢â¬â¢s? Similarly 60% of all smokers started smoking under the age of 17. These and too many other reasons to say, make me believe that smoking should be banished to the very depths of room 101 for the rest of eternity and IÃ¢â¬â¢m pretty sure IÃ¢â¬â¢m not the only one who thinks this.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Mechanisms of the Immune System: An Overview When the human body is attacked by microbes or pathogens, it defends itself using certain mechanisms. There are two types of mechanisms one which is non-specific and the other which is specific to the attack. The non-specific mechanism is similar no matter what attacks the body and is again sub divided into external and internal defences. The first line of defences The bodys first line of defense against pathogens is mostly physical. It involves sweat, skin, tears, mucus and stomach acid. Our skin and mucous membraneswhich line the body passages, are fairly effective in keeping most pathogens out of the body. They act like a protective barrier, defending against viral and bacterial invaders. The skin cannot be penetrated by bacteria or viruses under normal conditions. It has a pH range of 3-5 which is acidic enough to prevent the growth of bacteria. The clotting of blood near open wounds prevents an open space for antigens to easily enter the organism by coagulating the blood, and Lysozymes are an enzyme found in tears and saliva that have powerful digestive capabilities, and can break down foreign agents to a harmless status before they enter the body. Mucus in the nose traps pathogens, which are then washed away or destroyed by chemicals. The respiratory tract also has its own line of defense. Invading microbes and debris are trapped in layers of mucous or they are filtered by tiny hair like structures called cilia. The cilia move in waves, sweeping the debris towards the entrance where they can be extracted through coughing or sneezing, so dont hold your sneezes in!AndCorrosive acids in the stomach and protein digesting enzymes destroy most of the invading organisms carried in by food. The first line makes a very powerful line of defence, but sometimes intruders can find their way past this wall. Thankfully we have a second line on the inside! The second line of defence The second line of defence is immobilized when invaders enter in the body. A nonspecific internal defence mechanism is the process of phagocytosis; the ingestion of invading bacteria by certain blood cells. There are many phagocytic responses used in the body. When foreign particles penetrate the skin; like in cases of injury, certain leukocytes known as monocytes move to the blood tissues where they develop into eaters called macrophages. Using pseudopods, the macrophages engulf and destroy the bacteria with their enzymes. Another phagocytic response: white blood cells. Neutrophils are attracted to chemical signals sent off by cells that have been damaged by microbes. In the process of called chemotaxis, neutrophils move towards infected tissue. The neutrophils then engulf the microbe and release lysosomal enzymes that digest both the microbe and the leukocyte. The remaining fragments of protein, dead white blood and digested remainder are called pus. Tissue damage which is caused by physical damage also initiates an inflammatory response. An inflammatory response is a non-specific immune response which results in swelling, redness, heat and pain. Pus and inflammation are signs that the second line of defence is at work. That is how your body responds to a small localized injury. The body can also respond to severe injuries with a system-wide defence. Injured cells emit chemicals that simulate the production of phagocytic white blood cells and increase their release into the bloodstream. Bone marrow, the source of all blood cells is found in the inner spongy part of the upper leg bone, upper arm bone, breastbone and shoulder blades. A fever is a good example of the bodys system-wide response to infections. When infectious organisms spread through the body like in cold or flu, neutrophils and macrophages digest the invaders and release chemicals into the bloodstream. These chemicals cause your body to reset its thermostat to a higher temperature such as 40 degrees Celsius. These conditions in the body make it difficult for the harmful bacteria to survive; so essentially, the fever helps you recover. People often take medication like aspirin to reduce fever; this however may actually prolong the infection. If the temperature is above 40 degrees Celsius however, it can be unsafe. Keep in mind human cells themselves cannot survive over 43 degrees Celsius. THE IMMUNE SYSTEM The immune system is made up of cells, protein, tissues and organs. It defends us from germs and bacteria every day. The immune system is usually very successful but sometimes when there is a problem we can get infections and illnesses. About the Immune System The immune system is the bodys defense against infectious organisms and other invaders. Through a series of steps called the immune response, the immune system attacks organisms that invade body systems and cause disease. The immune system is made up of a network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to protect the body. The cells involved are white blood cells called leukocytes. Leukocytes are large opaque blood cells that engulf invading microbes and produce antibodies.They combine to seek out and destroy disease-causing organisms or substances. All leukocytes are produced in bone marrow. There are approximately 6,000,000,000 leukocytes in the human body. They are rather colorless because they dont contain hemoglobin which makes red bloodcells red. They have a life expectancy of 2-3 days and therefore the body is constanlty making large amounts of leukocytes all the time. Picture this: there is half a million white blood cells per very drop of blood! Leukocytes are produced or stored in many locations in the body, including the thymus, spleen, and bone marrow. This is why they are called the lymphoid organs. Leukocytes are also located in clumps of lymphoid tissue all around the body. They have asymetrical shapes which can change enabling them to get around all obstacles. The leukocytes circulate all around the body between the organs and nodes through the lymphatic vessels and the blood vessels. By doing so, the immune system works in a coordinated way to constantly monitor the body for germs or substances that might cause problems. There are 2 basic types of Leukocytes: They are phagocytes and lymphocytes. Phagocytes are cells that chew up invading organisms and lymphocytes are cells that allow the body to remember and recognize previous invaders and help the body destroy them. There are different types of phagocytes. The most common type is the neutrophil, it primarily fights bacteria. They are the most common type of white blood cell, neutrophils make up 50-70% of white blood cells in the body. They are the first to arrive at infected areasand kill intruders by ingestion. This process is called chemotaxis. Once the pathogen is swallowed the neutrophil dies. The process of neutrophils killing bacteria involves them releasing a net of fibers which traps the cell. This is called neutrophil extracellular trap (N.E.T). Some people have neutrophil difficiencies and as you can imagine it leads to severe problems and a compromised immune system. Other types of phagocytes are besophils, Eosinophils, Monocytes and Macrophages. Besophils are very rare in the body, they make up less than 1% of white blood cells. They d not do much as a result and simply help respond to infections. Eosinophils help ingulf parasites and discharge destructive enzymes to damage invading cells. They also kill parasitic eggs and worms. Monocytes are also very rare in the body, the less monocytes in the body the better. They replenish Macrophages and also help against infection. Finally we have Macrophages. They are cells that eat invaders and are involved in primary and innate immun response. For example they can be found in the lungs where they clean foreign debirs so they do not cause any problems. They usually remain stationed at specific posts in the body where foreign materials often enter. Anything that passes by the macrophages is scanned and if something is suspicious they engluf it. Once englufed the macrophage cereates an enzyme that neutral izes the invader so it becomes harmless and connot replicate and they preserve the antigen so that in the future it can be recognized and dealt with faster. The two kinds of lymphocytes are B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes. Lymphocytes start out in the bone marrow and from there they either stay and mature into B cells or they leave for the thymus gland, where they mature into T cells. B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes have different functions. B lymphocytes are like the bodys military intelligence system, they seek out their targets and send defenses to lock onto them and track them down. T cells on the other hand are like the soldiers, destroying the invaders that the intelligence systems (B cells) have identified. Antibodies are very specific Y-shaped proteins. For example an antibody produced against the influenza virus is not effective against HIV. These Y-shaped tails of the proteins are very similar, no matter which type of anti-body. Variation may only be produced in the outer edge of each arm, the area where the anti-body combines with the antigen. Antigen markers are different depending on the virus, for example the antigen marker of the influenza virus is different from that of the HIV virus. Each antigen is accompanied by its own antibody, shape wise. The markers of an antigen are located on the membrane of the virus or bacterium. After each attachment of an antibody, the antibody-antigen combination makes it more conspicuous, making it easy to be destroyed by wandering microphage. Antibodies prevent poisons and toxins from destroying cells with receptor sites, found on different cells. This might explain why some poisons affect the nervous system, while others affect digestive or circulatory systems. This receptor site is designed to hold either a hormone or a specific nutrient. Specialized geometrical structures allow toxins and poisons to become attached to the receptor sites on cell membranes. After bring attached, the poison is ingested by the cell, which the receptor site mistakes for hormones or nutrients, absorbing the poison. Antibodies then interfere with the poison so that the structure created is not recognized by the receptor cell. Receptor sites are also used by viruses as entry ports. As the virus injects its hereditary material into the cell, it leaves an outer protein coat in the entry port. The outer coat allows the virus to rest in different locations. For example the cold virus has the geometrical shape to allow it to attach the lung cells. How the Body Recognizes Harmful Antigens As the T-cell scouts, it looks for foreign bodies posing a threat to its survival. The macrophages then attack the invader, engulfing it. As the macrophage presses the antigen into its cell membrane, it couples with the T-cell, also known as a helper T-cell. The T-cell then reads the shape of the antigen and releases a chemical messenger called lymphokine. The B-cells divide into clones because of the lymphokine. A second message is then sent from the helper T-cell to the B-cell, allowing the production of antibodies. A specific type of antibody is produced by each B-cell. Antibodies are attached to their cell membranes by the time the B-cells enter the circulatory system. The Killer T-cell is an activated additional defender if the helper T-cell. These lymphokines go out for one purpose, which is to destroy. After being activated, the killer T-cells puncture through the cell membrane of the invader, which may differ from a protozoan parasite to a bacterium. Viruses are very different from the rest, as they hide within the structure of the cell. As the viral coat is found attached to the cell`s membrane, the T-cell attacks the infected cell. Killing the infected cell prevents the reproduction of the virus. Mutated cells are also destroyed by Killer T-cells. This process is extremely important as some of the altered cells may be cancerous. Getting cancerous virus or not depends on the success of the Killer T-cell. The bodys` rejection of organ transplants depend on Killer T-cells. Antigen markers on the organ will be recognized as foreign, sending the Killer T-cells in. Immunosuppressant drugs such as cyclosporine can slow down the Killer T cells. After the battle is done, and won, a different type of T-cell, the suppressor T-cell, signals the immune system to shut down. Communication between Suppressor T-cells and Helper T-cells is vital, allowing the immune system to know how many antibodies to produce to contain the antigens. Phagocytes clean the area, removing the dead and injured cells, and tissue begins to repair and replace. As previously mentioned, helper T-cells must read a blue print of the invader before the B-cells can produce antibodies. This information is stored so that later infections can be destroyed before the microbe can cause any harm. Immunity is based on maintaining a good number of antibodies. Its believed that memory-B cells are generated during the infection to hold an imprint of the antigen or antigens that characterize the invader. Most b and t cells produced die off within a few days; but memory B-cells remain. It can identify the enemy and quickly mobilize antibody-producing B-cells to defeat invading pathogens before they can establish themselves. As long as the memory B-cell survives, a person is immune to the disease, which is why a person cannot catch chicken pox more than once. Proteins also play a role in the bodys line of defence. When foreign organisms are present in the body, antimicrobial plasma proteins called complement proteins are activated. There are about 20 known types of complement proteins. Under normal conditions these proteins are inactive. When invading microbes trigger them however they in turn work as messengers. The complement proteins gather and initiate an attack on the cell membranes of the foreign organism. The proteins will then form a protective coating around the invader; this seals the invading cell immobilizing it. A second group punctures the cell membrane, this causes water to rush in and burst the cell. The tiny microbes become less soluble and more susceptible to phagocytes by leukocytes. All of these specialized cells are parts of the immune response system that offer the body protection against disease. This protection is called immunity. The Several Types of Immunity Innate Immunity Innate immunity is often called natural immunity, everyone is born with it, it is a general protection. It refers to basic resistance to germs or diseases that other species possess. For example, if a human has HIV their dog wont get HIV because it has innate immunity to that disease. Innate immunity works in both ways something that makes us sick wont get another species sick and something that gets another species sick wont get us sick. The Responses in innate immunity are Broad and non specific. The molecules used have a limited repertoire of recognition. It is a first line of defense. Innate immunity includes the external barriers of the body, like the skin and mucous membranes, which are the first line of defense in preventing diseases from entering the body. If this outer defensive wall is broken, the skin attempts to heal quickly and the second line of defence becomes involved. Adaptive Immunity The second kind of protection is adaptive/active immunity, it develops throughout our lives. Adaptive immunity involves the lymphocytes and develops as people are exposed to diseases or immunized against diseases through vaccination. With all kinds of diseases constantly exposed we adapt out bodies by taking vaccinations to become immune to them. Passive Immunity Passive immunity isan immunity borrowed externally from another source and it is temporary. For example, antibodies in a mothers breast milk provide the baby with temporary immunity to diseases. This helps protect the baby against infections during childhood when the babys body is still in early stages of development and not very strong. Everyones immune system is different. Some people never seem to get infections,while others seem to be sick all the time. As we grow older, we gradually become more immune to more germs as our immune system comes into contact with more and more of them. Matching tissues for organ transplant The main challenge is the immune response of the recipient- their immune systems ability to distinguish between self and non-self. The donor organ is often identified as an invader by distinct markers on its cell membrane, MHC or Major histocompatibility complex. MHC is a protein fingerprint unique to each person so the recipient will make antibodies to destroy what it thinks is a foreign invader. To reduce rejections, attempts are made to match donor MHC with that of the recipient as closely as possible. For living donor transplants, physicians usually look to close relatives because the MHC is genetically controlled. The better the match, the greater the chances of long term success. To help reduce rejection factor in deceased donor transplants, (because deceased donor transplants cannot usually have as close of an MHC as relatives) immunosuppressant drugs can be given, but it will also reduce the immune systems ability to fight off invading viruses and bacteria; placing these patients at risk of infections. Malfunctions of the immune system: Abnormal functions of the immune system can give rise to two types of problems: immune deficiency diseases and inappropriate attacks of the immune system against nonthreatening agents. Immune deficiency diseases may be caused by a foreign agent, such as the HIV virus which attacks t-cells, or a hereditary condition such as the severe combined immune deficiency SCID. Inappropriate or exaggerated immune response can also create problems. Hypersensitivity or response is where the immune system attacks normal cells in ones own body, which can destroy tissues and organs. Allergies Allergies occur when the immune system mistakes harmless cells for harmful invaders. If youre allergic to peanuts, your body recognizes one of its proteins as dangerous. Although its safe, your body immobilizes the antibody strike force against it. Increased tissue swelling, mucous secretion, and sometimes constricted air passages are all part of the immune response. Dust, ragweed and strawberries, do not pose any threat to life but the immune response can be so severe that it becomes life threatening. A sever food allergy is called an anaphylactic reaction which involves the respiratory and circulatory systems accompanied by hives, itching and swelling. When you eat a food to which youre allergic, the cells that believe they are in danger release histamine. It changes the cells of the capillaries, increasing permeability. The enlarged capillary causes the area to redden. White blood cells leave the capillary in search for the invader altering osmotic pressure. Proteins in extracellu lar fluids create another osmotic force to oppose it. Anaphylactic shock can occur very quickly and weakness, sweating and difficulty breathing indicate the condition. Medial precautions include carrying a kit with adrenaline (Epipen). Autoimmune Disease The immune system can make mistakes and launch an attack on the bodys own cells. Mutated T and B cells are capable of attacking the body but are usually held in check be suppressor T cells. The failure of suppressor T cells can cause diseases such as arthritis and rheumatic fever, all of which can scar the heart muscle. Drugs and serious infections can weaken suppressor T cells leaving the body vulnerable to autoimmune disease. The number of suppressor T cells also declines with age, and this explains the commonness of arthritis in the elderly. Stem cell research: The answer for replacing damaged tissues may lie in stem cell research rather than transplantation. Stem cells can differentiate and develop into a variety of different tissues such as epithelial tissue, muscle tissue or nerve tissue. Stem cells in the skin continuously replace cells that are sloughed off, give rise to a wide range of blood cells that protect against foreign invaders and identify human cells that have mutated, such as cancer cells. Stem cells are pluripotent cells that can give rise to different types of body cells. Precast Concrete: Advantages and Disadvantages Precast Concrete: Advantages and Disadvantages Jump to: Advantages of Precast Concrete ConstructionÃ | Disadvantages of Precast Concrete Construction 1.1 Introduction Precast concrete is a form of construction, where concrete is cast in a reusable mould or Ã¢â¬Å"formÃ¢â¬ which is then cured in a controlled environment, transported to the construction site and lifted into place. By producing precast concrete in a controlled environment (precast plant), the precast concrete is provides the opportunity to properly cure and be closely monitored by plant employees. There are many different types of precast concrete forming systems for architectural applications, differing in size, function and cost. The advantages of using precast concrete is the increased quality of the material, when formed in controlled conditions, and the reduced cost of constructing large forms used with concrete poured on site. It is used mainly in the construction of buildings with repetitive design and elements, such as schools and apartments. Every construction material system has its own characteristics which influence the layout, span length, construction depth, stability system, etc. This is also the case for precast concrete. Not only in comparison to steel, wood, masonry structures, but also with respect to cast in-situ concrete. Precast concrete members may be solid or may contain hollow cores. Many precast components have thinner cross sections than cast in situ concrete. Precast concrete may be either normal or lightweight concrete. Theoretically, all joints between the precast units could be made in such a way that the completed precast structure has the same concept as a in-situ one. However, this is a wrong approach one, which is very labour intensive costly. If the full advantages of precast concrete are to be realized, the structure should be conceived according to its specific design philosophy: Long spans, appropriate stability concept, simple details,etc. Designers should from the very beginning of the project consider the possibilities, restrictions advantages of precast concrete, its details, manufacturer, transport, erection service stages before completing a design in precast concrete. Architectural precast concrete provides architects with an exciting medium when designing facades for a wide range of buildings, from healthcare facilities to shopping malls, commercial office buildings to sports stadiums. 1.2 History of IBS Concept of IBS in not new and can be traced back to as early 1624. In 1624, panellised timber houses were shipped from England to the new settlement in North America. In 1851 Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, London and 1889 Eiffel Tower, Paris are the well-known examples of buildings which uses the method of precast in constructing the structure of the building itself. 1.3 Precast building system Precast building system is divided into 3 main parts: Precast concrete frame Precast concrete wall Precast concrete floor 1.3.1 PRECAST CONCRETE FRAME Description Precast concrete frames involve an entire structure being fabricated off-site. In addition, structural components can be supplied for incorporation into a structure on-site. Frames can simultaneously achieve both structural and decorative design requirements. A variety of mixes, colours and finishes can be used too. The precast frame is composed of precast column and beam. Process Precast concrete frames are cast in the same way as precast concrete cladding, but as they are designed as structural elements they have heavier reinforcement than required for non-structural cladding. Elegant connections are required between columns and beams to transfer considerable forces without affecting the visual appearance of the frame. 1.3.2 PRECAST CONCRETE WALL Description Many precast concrete walls are cast in a flat position at the building site. But they are still classified as precast, not sitecast. When the concrete is strong enough, the wall panels are lifted and placed in the desired positions for the building. This method is commonly known as tilt-up construction. Today such walls are lifted and placed with cranes, so that casting can make repeated use of single forms. Some wall units are cast in factories, where the form, quality of materials, and finishing can be more controlled. Because of their large size and weight, these walls cannot be transported to long distance from the factory. Thus, their use is limited to a short distance from the precast factory. Precast units for roof and floor structures are usually prestressed. However, precast wall units are usually conventionally reinforced with inert steel bars. Precast wall are used for internal external walls, lift shafts, central cores etc. Precast wall systems are mostly used in domestic construction, both for individual housing for apartments. The solution can be considered as the industrialized from of cast in-situ walls or classical brick or block masonry walls. 1.3.3 PRECAST CONCRETE FLOOR SLAB Precast concrete floor slab is the most fully standardized precast concrete elements. They are used for making floor and roof slabs. The principle advantages of precast floors are speed of construction, absence of scaffolding, large variety of types, large span capacity, economy. Precast floors can also be classified according to their manufacture into totally partially precast floors. Totally precast floors are composed of units, which are totally cast at the plant. After erection, the units are connected to the structure the longitudinal joints are grouted.In some cases a cast in-situ structural topping screed is added. Partially precast floors are composed of a precast part a cast in-situ part. Both parts are working together at the final stage to achieve the composite structural capacity. The main totally precast floor roof types are described hereafter. Pre cast hollow core slab Most widely used type of pre cast flooring highly efficient design and production 1.4 Advantages of Precast Concrete Construction Some of the advantages of using precast concrete construction are as follows: 1.4.1 Reduced Construction Time and Cost Precast concrete construction will save valuable time and helps to reduce the risk of project delay and possible monetary losses. Precast design and production of elements can be started while the construction site is under survey or earthworks. Production are also unaffected by weather conditions due to the controlled environment of the casting area. Also, the usage of large precast panels will reduce the time taken to complete the structural works. Therefore, other trades such as painting and electrical wiring can begin work sooner. In conventional construction method, time-consuming works such as formworks, scaffoldings and curing are needed to produce a structural element. In precast concrete construction method, structural elements are produced in manufacturing plants while other activities at the construction site proceed. When the structural elements are needed, they are immediately sent to the site and assembled continuously, forming the structural frame and enclosing the building. In precast concrete manufacturing plants, modern machineries are utilized with several technicians attending to certain production process. This greatly reduced the number of unskilled requirements. 1.4.2 High quality and aesthetical value of products Precast products are manufactured in a casting area where critical factors including temperature, mix design and stripping time can be closely checked and controlled; and this will ensure that the quality of precast products are better than cast-in-situ concrete. A huge sum of money will be saved by not having to do rectification works. Also due to factory-controlled prefabrication environment, many combinations of colours and textures can be applied easily to the architectural or structural pieces. A vast range of sizes and shapes of precast components can be produced, providing a great deal of flexibility and offer fresher looks to the structures. 1.4.3 Cleaner and safer construction sites Usage of precast elements eliminates or greatly reduces conventional formworks and props. Precast construction also lessens the problem of site wastages and the related environmental problems. The prefabricated products also provide a safe working platform for workers to work on. Workers and materials are also greatly reduced at the construction sites. Using Just-in-Time principles, the precast elements are kept at the factory yard until the site is ready for installation. Also, as elements are produced in the plant and mostly designed to be repetitive, minimal wastage will be experienced at both factory and construction sites. 1.4.4 Greater unobstructed span The usage of prestressed precast solutions such as the Hollow Core slabs and Double-T beams offer greater unobstructed span than the conventional reinforced concrete elements. Having lesser beams and columns, will provide larger open space. It is very ideal for the construction of places of worship, warehouses, halls, car parks, shops and offices. 1.4.5 Lower total construction costs All of the above simplify the construction processes and increase productivity, quality and safety. As a result, the total costs of construction are reduced. More often than not, most of the opponents of precast construction only use the costs of materials in comparing the in-situ and precast construction without realising that there are hidden costs to the traditional methods. Also a contributing factor to the low usage is the fact that Malaysia has always been able to source cheap labours from neighbouring countries. Therefore, the industry players are very reluctant to change to the new construction methods. As a result, the country is faced by problems of low quality, productivity and safety in the construction industry due to high dependency of manual labour. The country also suffers from the outflow of monies as well as social problems. If the labour supply experience sudden reduction while demand remains the same, labour costs will definitely be increased and produce more prob lems to the industry. 1.4.6 Increased Quality of Structural Elements Precast concrete elements produced in plants using modern techniques and machineries. Raw materials such as concrete, sand, and reinforcement bars are under high level of quality control. Formworks used are of higher quality than those used at construction sites. This allows truer shapes and better finishes in precast components. Precast components have higher density and better crack control, offering better protection from harsh weathers and sound insulation. High density is achieved by using vibrating table or external vibrators placed on formworks. Precast concrete also provide better fire resistance for reinforcement bars. When compared to in situ concrete, this reduces the amount of long-term movement, which needs to be recognized in building design. 1.4.7 Increased Durability and Load Capacity of Structural Elements Prestressed precast concrete components have high structural strength and rigidity, which are important to support heavy loads. This allows shallow construction depth and long span in structural components. Fewer supporting columns or walls result in larger floor space, which allow more flexibility in interior design. Dense precast and prestressed concrete components are cast-in with smooth steel, concrete or fiberglass. This result in components with smooth surfaces which resist moisture penetration, fungus and corrosion. High density concrete reduces the size and quantity of surface voids thus resisting accumulation of dirt and dust. Precast concrete components are more durable to acid attack, friction, corrosion, impact, abrasion, and other environment effects. Precast concrete structures have longer service years and require minimal repairs and maintenance. 1.5 Disadvantages of Precast Concrete Some of the drawbacks of using precast concrete construction are as follows: 1.5.1 High Capital Cost A large amount of resources must be invested initially to set up a precast concrete plant. Sophisticated machineries are expensive and require heavy investment. Percast concrete is mainly used in construction of high-rise buildings and flats, which are atleast 5 storeys high. Precast concrete is also utilized in construction of housing estates where the design of houses is uniform. Other projects where precast concrete is suitable are large stadiums, halls, factories, awrehouses, airports and hangars. The scale of the construction projects using precast concrete must be large enough to ensure sufficient profit to offset the initial capital cost. 1.5.2 Sophisticated Connection Works The behaviour of connections determines the performance of precast concrete structures. When assembling of precast concrete structures, connections between precast components must be supervised and done properly. This way, the intended behaviour of a connection (simple, semi-rigid, or rigid) can be achieved. Apart from that, a good sound insulation can be provided and water leakage problem can be avoided. Skilled and well-trained labours are required to ensure proper connection is produced during erection stages, which lead to additional cost. 1.5.3 Transportation, Handling Difficulties and Modification Limitation Workers must be careful when handling precast concrete components to avoid damage. Precat components are manufactures in plants, which are not always situated in the area of the construction sites. Precast components must be carried from the plants to the sites using trailers. Usually, precast components are large and heavy, creating difficulties in transportation. Upon arrival at the sites, portable cranes or tower cranes will lift the precast components into place for erection. Usually, to increase the speed of construction, several cranes are used requiring large space. Proper construction planning and site management is a must. Workers be well trained to ensure that precast components are positioned and connected properly to avoid cases where the columns, beams, walls, or slabs are not well aligned, dislocated or out of plane. Precast concrete system is not flexible when future modification is taken into account. For example, the walls of a flat built using load bearing precast w alls cannot be demolished for renovation purposes, as this will affect the stability of the entire precast structure. 1.6 Precast Concrete Construction in Malaysia The usage of precast building system is gaining popularity in Malaysia because of its many advantages such as high quality structural finishes, less labour force, shorter time of completion and saves cost. In the construction industry today, the usage of cast in-situ method is not so practical and effective especially when it is in a large scale construction. Therefore, the usage of precast components is the best alternative to fulfill the needs in large scale constructions. The precast concrete concept is ideal to suit the future demands of higher specifications and performance for the commercial, industrial, civic and domestic buildings. Precast building system or commonly known as IBS (Industrialized Building Systems) in Malaysia has many advantages if it is compared to the traditional cast in situ system. Production of precast components such as beams, columns and slabs were done in the factory thus ensuring high quality control for each component. Structures of precast building can be quickly erected on site and the delays due to concrete curing and concrete formwork removal can be reduced resulting in shorter completion time of construction. Besides that, precast system requires lesser amount of labour force. 1.6.1 Development of IBS in Malaysia IBS in Malaysia has begun in early 1960s when Ministry of Housing and Local Government of Malaysia visited several European countries to learn about precast concrete construction and evaluate their housing development program. After their successful visit in 1964, the government had started first project on IBS aims to speed up the delivery time and built affordable and quality houses. Precast concrete construction started in Malaysia with the production of 7 blocks of 17-storey flat, 4 blocks of 4-storey flat and 40 units of shop house opposite the Kuala Lumpur General Hospital at the intersection of Jalan Pekeliling and Jalan Pahang. This project used the Larsen-Nielson system from Denmark. The second construction project, which used precast concrete, was the construction of 6 blocks of 17-storey flat, 3 blocks of 18-storey flat and 66 units of shop house along Jalan Rifle, Penang. This project used the Frenchs Estior system. Since then, numerous precast structures such as high-ris es, car parks, warehouses, factories, housings and retail units have been built all over the country. Some latest examples are the Telekom Headquarter in KL, townhouses in Cyberjaya, City Square in Johor Bahru, Putra Mosque in Putrajaya and Metal Pak Factory in Shah Alam. Today, the use of IBS as a method of construction in Malaysia is evolving. Many private companies in Malaysia have teamed up with foreign expert from Australia, United States and Japan to offer precast solution to their project. In addition, more and more local manufacturers have established themselves in the market. Precast, steel frame and other IBS were used as hybrid construction to build national landmark such as Bukit Jalil Sport Complex, LRT and Petronas Twin Tower. It was reported that at least 21 of various manufacturers and suppliers of IBS are actively promoting their system in Malaysia. Nevertheless, the government of Malaysia still feels that the usage of IBS is low despite the possible potential. From the survey conducted by CIDB of Malaysia in 2003, the usage level of IBS in local construction industry stands at 15%. The total registered IBS contractors in Malaysia stand for 1,993 in year 2007 and registered IBS manufacture in Malaysia until 2007 is 138 producing 347 IBS products available in the market. Most of the local developed products are based on traditional materials such as reinforced concrete and the most innovative materials are based on imported technology. Previously in the RMK-7, the country intend to construct about 800,000 units of houses for its population using the IBS and 58,500 units planned for the low medium cost houses. However the achievements are disappointing with only 20% completed houses reported due to use of conventional construction method. 1.6.2 IBS as Mass Construction Method The term IBS is often misinterpreted with negative meaning as it is always linked with industrialized buildings that were built in 1960s. These buildings are normally associated with prefabricated mass construction method, low quality buildings, leakages, abandoned projects, unpleasant architectural appearances and other drawbacks. Due to the poor architectural design, the old prefabriacted buildings have given the pbulic bad impression about precast concrete. There have been quiet a number of cases where the use of IBS had lead to such drawbacks. For example, in the case of Pekeliling Flats in Kuala Lumpur and Taman Tun Sardon, Gelugor, Penang. These 2 early prefabricated flats were constructed in mass to produce low cost accomodation for lower income groups. However, the design was very basic and not considering the service aspects like the need for wet toilets and bathrooms. Lacking in this design consideration leads to problems of leakage that becomes the common issue with precast buildings. In addition, in many cases the low cost housings are not maintained properly, thus contributing further to the poor image of IBS buildings. 1.6.3 Characteristics of IBS Industrial production of components though prefabrication. Reduced labour during prefabrication of components and site works. Modern design and manufacturing method using CAD/CAM. Systematic Quality Control i.e ISO 9000. Open Building System i.e permitting hybrid applications. 1.6.4 Why IBS Budget Speech 2005: The Government is determined to ensure that every Malaysian will have access to affordable homes. During the period 1971-2003, the Government constructed 490,000 units of low-cost houses. The government intends to provide an additional 100,000 units of affordable homes to be implemented through the Industrialised Building System (IBS).This system will ensure quality, save cost, create a safer and cleaner working environment as well as reduce the dependence of foreign workers 1.6.5 Social Problems Currently 75 foreign workers out of 100 construction workers. There are 318,000 foreign workers in Malaysian Construction Industry Let say one foreign worker gain RM400 per month; RM400.00 x 12 months = RM5,000 per year, 318,000 x RM5,000 = RM 1.59 Billion per year It shows the High outflow of Ringgit 1.6.6 Types of IBS The construction method can be classified into 4 categories:
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Monetary Model and Value Elasticity of Demand A monetary model is a revised depiction of reality, planned to yield hypotheses about budgetary lead that can be attempted. A basic part of a budgetary model is that it is generally subjective in diagram in light of the way that there are no objective measures of fiscal outcomes. Assorted money related investigators will make particular judgments about what is relied upon to illuminate their illustrations of reality. A money related model is enhanced framework for clearing up the workings of the economy. It exhibits the prepare of driving the modeler to formally clarify doubts and urge out associations behind those suppositions. Models are used for two basic purposes: reproducing (e.g. by what means may the world change concerning some counterfactual if we expect an alteration in either consider) Reasons of monetary model disappointment Every single budgetary model, paying little regard to how got, are subjective approximations of reality wanted to clear up watched contemplates. It takes after that the models gages must be tempered by the haphazardness of the significant information it plans to enlighten and by the genuineness of the speculations used to choose its conditions. No cash related model can be a faultless depiction of reality. Regardless, the very strategy for making, testing, and invigorating models powers cash related masters and policymakers to settle their perspectives about how an economy limits. This consequently advances astute open thought over what drives fiscal lead and what ought to (or ought not) be done to regulate expose dissatisfactions. Focal points of monetary model On a central level, key good conditions of a ubiquity based alliance join (1) more proficient game-plan and development of open associations adjusted to the differing attributes of tenant and ordinary inclinations (2) better course of action of the expenses and purposes of enthusiasm of government for an alternate citizenry and in this manner more significant regard, seeing that subjects get what they pay for and pay for what they get (3) better fits between open things and their spatial properties, particularly the variable economies of size of various open stock Conclusion Monetary models use past information and tries to figure future. It just works at some point, so instead of estimating or foreseeing, government ought to concentrate on current situation and attempt to improve it Most of the financial models accept ceteris paribus condition which is impractical. For effortlessness, financial matters utilizes 2 parties: like 2 nations, or two individuals, or request side and supply side, however quite are parcels and bunches of different gatherings that effect any monetary conduct. Along these lines, monetary models might misdirect. For the most part, cash supply and different strategies of this current year depends on cash supply of a year ago. At the point when tremor hit us we were totally helpless regarding economy. Something are more essential than however cant be seen on paper. Government utilizes gigantic spending plan to discover information about destitution rate and even gives things. In any case, on the off chance that they attempt to give professional preparing to destitute individuals instead of giving them gifts, one day gifts would not be fundamental. Question 2 Value Elasticity of Demand (PED or Ed) is a measure used as a piece of money related perspectives to show the responsiveness, or adaptability, of the sum asked for of a not too bad or organization to a conformity in its cost, more precisely, it gives the rate change in sum asked for in light of a one percent change in cost. Value flexibilities are regularly negative, regardless of the way that specialists tend to disregard the sign notwithstanding the way this can provoke to instability. Just items which dont fit in with the law of enthusiasm, for instance, Veblen and Giffen stock, have a positive PED. All around, the enthusiasm for an average is said to be inelastic (or decently inelastic) when the PED is shy of what one (in incomparable regard) that is, changes in cost have a for the most part little effect on the measure of the immense asked. Value versatility of interest for tobacco items Why people diminish smoking in light of additions in the cost of tobacco things has included some guess. However there is most likely they do. How much enthusiasm for tobacco things responds to changes in cost is a test question, the reaction to which can be found by measuring designs in use as expenses and other huge components change. In 1999, a World Bank review contemplated that, all else being identical, taken a toll climbs of around 10% would overall reduce tobacco usage by around 4% in made countries and around 8% in making nations. The review coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer appropriated in 2011 contemplated that audits on the impact of cost additions on aggregate demand in high pay countries all things considered find esteem adaptability of about-0.4, with most gages from the US and UK falling in a by and large point of confinement go between-0.2 and -0.6.7 . Estimation of value flexibilities of interest for liquor Interest for liquor is affected by an arrangement of factors other than cost, for instance, pay, allowing controls, social and real factors, among others. Concerning, the current written work clearly suggests that the demand twist for blended beverages, both solely and all things considered, slants plunging and that enthusiasm for alcohol is for the most part inelastic, with 0.5 being represented by general meta-thinks about, for instance, Gallet (2007) and Wagenaar et al (2009). Most examinations of value versatility of interest for alcohol have irrefutably based on ownprice adaptability gages for the three key sorts of blended refreshments mix, wine and spirits without refinement between the on-and the off-trade. In spite of, concentrates that have allowed for different usage responses in the on-and off-trade Huang (2003), Collis et al (2010), Meng et al (2014) at the University of Sheffield have watched them to be exceptionally specific for most alcohols sorts. Conclusion Showcase economies are relied upon to have various buyers and vendors, high competition and many substitutes. Imposing business models depict wanders in which the supplier chooses expenses and high obstacles shield any contenders from entering the market. Oligopolies are endeavors with two or three related associations. Perfect contention addresses an economy with various associations battling with each other for purchaser interest and advantages. References 1) Farrelly M and Bray J. Reaction to increments in cigarette costs by race/ethnicity, wage, and age groups-United States 2) Chambers, M. (1999). Buyers request and extract obligation receipts conditions for liquor, tobacco, petrol and DERV, Government Economic Service Working Paper, HM Treasury.
Monday, August 19, 2019
The Virgin Mary Statue Kindergarten through fourth grade was absolutely beautiful. We all sat together at lunch, played tag together on the playground, laughed and listened to the teachers together in class. Then fifth grade rolled around, and all my friends started to evolve, and for the worse as I saw it. We all started noticing things that we werenÃ¢â¬â¢t aware of before. We used to be like a bunch of happy naked babies, absolutely oblivious to the fact that we were all unclothed and different from one another. Then, some of us took the role of Eve; we became seduced into eating the forbidden apple and offered it to our friends. We started realizing that despite the fact that we were all wearing the same black plaid uniforms, our skin colors differed. We all acted differently too. Some of us had accents, others didnÃ¢â¬â¢t. Some girls had long hair, others had bob cuts. Some wore glasses and had skirts that went past their knees; others had perfect vision and had their skirts h iked up to show as much leg as possible. As I said, we were all becoming aware of these things. Whether it be in fifth grade ,earlier, or after, we all have these moments of Ã¢â¬Å"revelationÃ¢â¬ and we start to interpret our surroundings in a different way. For me, after fifth grade, my surroundings were changing all the time. Formation of Ã¢â¬Å"cliquesÃ¢â¬ had officially started. The word Ã¢â¬Å"coolÃ¢â¬ was being redefined almost every month. With these new definitions came new friends and ex-friends. I recall watching girls in the Ã¢â¬Å"popularÃ¢â¬ group playing a game of running behind the Virgin Mary statue whenever they saw someone they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t like entering the playground. It was a way of letting the unwanted girl know where she stood with the Ã¢â¬Å"clique.Ã¢â¬ As embarrassing as this is to admit, I used to be one of those girls who ran towards the Virgin Mary statue as if there was some reward there awaiting me. But there was no treasure there. And even if I did find some comfort in being part of the Ã¢â¬Å"cliqueÃ¢â¬ that day, the fol lowing day I had become a victim of the same cruel game I was in part responsible for.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
In the poem Ã¢â¬Å"DaddyÃ¢â¬ , Sylvia Plath says that there are women who, due to early conditioning, find themselves without the tools to deal with oppressive and controlling men. They are left feeling helpless and hopeless. For some women, the struggle is never resolved, others take most of a lifetime. For a lucky few, they are granted a reprieve. The speaker in this poem is Sylvia Plath. The poem describes her feelings of oppression and her battle to come to grips with the issues of this power imbalance. The poem also conjures the struggle many women face in a male dominated society. The conflict of this poem is male authority and control versus the right of a female to be herself, to make choices, and be free of male domination. PlathÃ¢â¬â¢s conflicts begin in her relationship with her father and continues with her husband. The intensity of this conflict is extremely apparent as she uses examples that cannot be ignored. The atrocities of NAZIÃ¢â¬â¢ Germany are used as symbols of the horror of male domination. The constant and crippling manipulation of the male, as he introduces oppression and hopelessness into the lives of his women, is equated with the twentieth centuryÃ¢â¬â¢s worst period. Words such as Luftwaffe, panzerman, and Meinkampf look are used to descibe her father and husband as well as all male domination. The frequent use of the word black throughout the poem conveys a feeling of gloom and suffocation. Like many women in society, we know that Plath felt oppressed and stifled throughout her life by her use of the simile Ã¢â¬Å"I have lived like a shoe for thirty years poor and white, barely able to breath or Achoo.Ã¢â¬ The use of similes and metaphors such as Ã¢â¬Å"Chuffing me off like a Jew. A Jew to Dachau, Auschwitz, Belson.Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"I think I may well be a JewÃ¢â¬ clearly shows the feelings of anguished hopelessness and the ripping agony she must have felt. The agelessness of this poem is guaranteed as there will always be women who feel the same torture that is described. . Strong images are conveyed throughout the poem. The words Ã¢â¬Å"marble- heavy, a.bag full of GodÃ¢â¬ conveys the omniscience of her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s authority and the heaviness it weighed on her throughout her life. Ã¢â¬Å"The vampire who said he was you, and drank my blood for a year, seven years if you want to knowÃ¢â¬ describe her husband and the ability of male power to strip a person of their own sen... ...trol extreme mood swings with ESB.(Coulman 679) While scientists continue to investigate exactly what electricity does to the human brain, they still use it as a form of therapy. ECT is administered annually to 100,000 Americans (Boodman 7). This inexpensive form of temporary relief is administered by the simple twist of a dial and is yet to be refined. These imperfections can make ECT an unpredictable and risky procedure that may even end lives. Still everyday, hundreds of desperate Americans give into these sometimes favorable artificial convulsions induced by electrical power. Works Cited Boodman, Sandra G. Shock Therapy...ItÃ¢â¬â¢s Back. [Online] Available http://www.efn.org/-detron/electroshock/postshock.html Cauchon, Dennis. Stunningly Quick results often fade just as fast. [Online] Available Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã http://www.usatoday.com/life/health/lhs188.htm Coulman, James, ed. Abnormal Psychology and Normal Life. Illinois: Scott, Foresman and Company, 1964. No Author. Ban Shock: Shock Therapy- - itÃ¢â¬â¢s no good for the brain. [Online] Available Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã http://www.banshock.org/ Daddy by sylvia plath Essay -- essays research papers fc In the poem Ã¢â¬Å"DaddyÃ¢â¬ , Sylvia Plath says that there are women who, due to early conditioning, find themselves without the tools to deal with oppressive and controlling men. They are left feeling helpless and hopeless. For some women, the struggle is never resolved, others take most of a lifetime. For a lucky few, they are granted a reprieve. The speaker in this poem is Sylvia Plath. The poem describes her feelings of oppression and her battle to come to grips with the issues of this power imbalance. The poem also conjures the struggle many women face in a male dominated society. The conflict of this poem is male authority and control versus the right of a female to be herself, to make choices, and be free of male domination. PlathÃ¢â¬â¢s conflicts begin in her relationship with her father and continues with her husband. The intensity of this conflict is extremely apparent as she uses examples that cannot be ignored. The atrocities of NAZIÃ¢â¬â¢ Germany are used as symbols of the horror of male domination. The constant and crippling manipulation of the male, as he introduces oppression and hopelessness into the lives of his women, is equated with the twentieth centuryÃ¢â¬â¢s worst period. Words such as Luftwaffe, panzerman, and Meinkampf look are used to descibe her father and husband as well as all male domination. The frequent use of the word black throughout the poem conveys a feeling of gloom and suffocation. Like many women in society, we know that Plath felt oppressed and stifled throughout her life by her use of the simile Ã¢â¬Å"I have lived like a shoe for thirty years poor and white, barely able to breath or Achoo.Ã¢â¬ The use of similes and metaphors such as Ã¢â¬Å"Chuffing me off like a Jew. A Jew to Dachau, Auschwitz, Belson.Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"I think I may well be a JewÃ¢â¬ clearly shows the feelings of anguished hopelessness and the ripping agony she must have felt. The agelessness of this poem is guaranteed as there will always be women who feel the same torture that is described. . Strong images are conveyed throughout the poem. The words Ã¢â¬Å"marble- heavy, a.bag full of GodÃ¢â¬ conveys the omniscience of her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s authority and the heaviness it weighed on her throughout her life. Ã¢â¬Å"The vampire who said he was you, and drank my blood for a year, seven years if you want to knowÃ¢â¬ describe her husband and the ability of male power to strip a person of their own sen... ...trol extreme mood swings with ESB.(Coulman 679) While scientists continue to investigate exactly what electricity does to the human brain, they still use it as a form of therapy. ECT is administered annually to 100,000 Americans (Boodman 7). This inexpensive form of temporary relief is administered by the simple twist of a dial and is yet to be refined. These imperfections can make ECT an unpredictable and risky procedure that may even end lives. Still everyday, hundreds of desperate Americans give into these sometimes favorable artificial convulsions induced by electrical power. Works Cited Boodman, Sandra G. Shock Therapy...ItÃ¢â¬â¢s Back. [Online] Available http://www.efn.org/-detron/electroshock/postshock.html Cauchon, Dennis. Stunningly Quick results often fade just as fast. [Online] Available Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã http://www.usatoday.com/life/health/lhs188.htm Coulman, James, ed. Abnormal Psychology and Normal Life. Illinois: Scott, Foresman and Company, 1964. No Author. Ban Shock: Shock Therapy- - itÃ¢â¬â¢s no good for the brain. [Online] Available Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã http://www.banshock.org/