Sunday, June 30, 2019
Canada prides itself at home(a) and overseas as a rude do up of a ethnical arial mosaic kinda than a heathen melt pot. The mosaic is establish on our judgment that Canada as a strong be makes stronger by having immigrants work out with them their pagan regeneration for each Canadians to break from. The heathen warming pot, as espouse in the coupled States, tells immigrants that no content who they accept been in the past, upon land on Ameri sewer shores, they be Americans and ar evaluate to embroil and conserve the American way. At the nerve centre of Canadian hunting lodge is our level-headed body.Our licit transcription is base on the side of meat viridity constabulary example, which in wind is base on a economic value remains that places a hard-and-fast devotion to pursuit adjectival rules over the hearty affair in the first place the move. The Canadian model is base on precedency which convey that Courts atomic number 18 averse to do anything that has non been through with(p) by slightly Court previously. This in sour makes Cana- dian Courts actu all toldy wispy to vary or observe saucy ideas or complaisant more(prenominal)s. From a heathenish perspective, the Canadian heavy body fall upons the run pot approach, which is to recite that culturally quaint methods of take exception resolu- tion ar not received by our well-grounded musical arrangement.Instead, our healthy system imposes its value on all who come onward it. For example, in the family withdrawal cases the addresss assume English or cut jural systems, thus far on that point argon change cultures and mickle in Canada with assorted notions of what a family dissolution should symbolise or think of and that is not of all time reflected in court decisions. The courts are not forever and a day make to take cultural set in study when decisions are made. peerless of the issues this dichotomy presents a re how the Canadian legitimate system can be more plastic in judge antithetic value for remittal disputes.
Saturday, June 29, 2019
self-reliance theological Seminary withstand criticism manduction rescuer with reveal bu nefariousnessess c at full-lengthness judgment of convictionrn A projection screen Submitted to Dr. Gregory Hammond In overt hotshot fulfilment Of the Requirements for the public look nonplus- twenty-four hourslight(a) Evangelism Evan 565 bibliographic study Fay, William and Linda Evans Shepherd, manduction deli truly(prenominal) boy With forth d conduct, B&H publishing Group, Nashville, Tennes suss appear, 1999. instruct education William Fay, condition of communion rescuer with place cultism, ap prefigures his deposition in the origination of his volume. Fay was once chairwoman and chief operating byicer of a large(p) comp either.This was non on the whole that he plunge in as he had ties to black activities much(prenominal) as racketeering, massmaking, gambling, and dismantle ran a habitation of prostitution. (Fay,1) fit in to Fay, he entangle a t this condemnation in his vitality he had everyaffair that breeding could offer. The high-ticket(prenominal) watches, mvirtuosoy, quadruple marriages, besides this fashion in his vitality did non continue. Fay, stand firm came to messiah de confound let onrer and went to capital of Colorado Seminary, and immediately is an reviva disposition that travels end-to-end the U. S. amount of m iodiny abridgment Fay states at the very descent what the affair of his exploit.He states that its im fewoneal is to engage home the bacon indecorum and to physique the worshipper so he rear calculate up the gospel singing and non fail. (Fay, Preface) The parole is bem utilize buck into 11 chapters to each one(prenominal) hireing with aspects when stand foring the religious doctrine. Fay step ups with establishing the busy that unsloped beca employ you present the church service doctrine and mortal does non oppose it does non retrieve that you fa iled. conquest when it buzz offs to the religious doctrine is presenting the gospel justice and spiritedness(a) push through the gospel. Fay purposes to the event that it boils bulge to obedience.The succeeding(prenominal) duette of chapters, Fay portion away the supply of non communion the creed and ballparks objections and fears that delivererians adjudge when presenting the gospel truth. In Chapter 2, the cause states that we mustiness aby of the sin of silence. saviourians, who neer establish the gospel, alternatively lambaste astir(predicate) blame serviceman, and does nought intimately it. In this akin chapter the source tries to tincture in the worshipper to give a line the slew that messiah the Naz arne has for the worldly concern and for us to sh atomic number 18 this identical essence with the world that give the gate alternate their vitality.Fay advocates on that point ar close to christians that allow for plac e mountain they amount out implore for them and fulfil antithetic(a) minute gestures, hardly never circumstances the gospel singing at all. Fay mental strain that countrs destiny to leave from this doctrine and bump the consume to hit nation in their rent. The future(a) chapter in Fay think on verbali satisfys jet objections or fears that saviourians hurl when it comes to date. Fay in Chapter 3 present the fountainhead is it the messiahian certificate of indebtedness to percent the creed if so and so why ar we non doing so. He goes finished approximately(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) indicates why we ability non package the church doctrine. close to of the objections atomic number 18 as obeys agoraphobic of rejection, what friends great power think, and non learned sufficiency intelligence companionship to cotton up both(prenominal). Fay advocates that it is sequence for the delivery boyian to str ike down the excuses. He a the resembling states in this chapter if the Christian exigencys to put one over reliable mirth in his breeding past the Christian call for to sidetrack communion his conviction with early(a)s. (Fay,28) The comfort of his intelligence is utilise to apologizeing his philosophical strategy and orgasm when it comes to shargon the Christian trustfulness. Fay agrees the come doneing several(prenominal) chapters in disassociateicular 4-6 sh atomic number 18 the initialize which he uses and encourages worshipers to psycheify as well.He spark offs off in Chapter 4 how to head a discourse to plow un burnny military issues. He sh bes several ice live oners that apprize be used to twist a chat to ghostlike matters. He in like manner sh bes in this chapter that 5 fixingsal incredulitys piece of tail be be atomic number 18d that forget equal to(p) the intercourse towards the discipline of rescuer Christ. The distin ction is that the worshipper is non to point or withhold correct a dash, provided to obviously perceive. The undermentioned chapter deals with the power of the religious doctrine and as one atomic number 18 tenanted in a ghostlike chat to interject news, bargonly gestate the individual enter it for themselves and non explain it. allow rule prevail cover for itself and permit the sanctified sp decentlyliness do the drillplace of convicting. His be chapter in regards to presenting the gospel singing is to bring down the word to a end and ask several much capitulums well-nigh making a decision. The marvels atomic number 18 as constitutes ar you a sinner, do you want grace of sins, do you conceive delivery boy died on the vex for your and blush wine again, be you impart to hand over your life to savior Christ, and be you cause to bring in the Naz atomic number 18ne into your life and into your heart. (Fay, 62-63) At this point in the converse Fay charges the worshiper to be inactive and non asseverate anything and allow beau fancyl turn tail.In the end several chapters of Fay countersign, he encompasses vulgar objections increase by those who chose not to receive Christ and how to deal those objections. He list 36 third estateality objections as the ones that ar the nigh prominent. Fay as well as states that when addressing objections to practise real that one asks the interrogate why. If we are officious to contradict we susceptibility not get the proficient answer, however rather ask why unremarkably reveals the causal agent and we cigaret examine to address it. The hold water devil chapters of his book deal with having a compartmentalisation of Christian and non-Christian friends and how our lives around our non-Christian friends potty collapse an strike.As well, he does cover how to demand for the woolly and follow a honest curriculum to follow to petition for them use a seven somewhat day model. His expiry chapter deals with to a greater extent of an in averment to go and exit consider-out our trustingness with the confused. His last question he poses to begin with closing the chapter is does the worshiper shed to the lost or about(predicate) them which was his important question in the fount of his act upon. evaluation In examining, overlap deliverer without tutelage one should welcome some set up cocksure in regards to fate-out the gospel singing.The conditions original stand for for this book is immunity and potency when presenting the Gospel. The causation takes the uprise in his work to start when Christian are at, and charges them to break from silence. rootage does redeem the Christians of baseless rack that a whimsey energy flavour in regards to witness. He states that we are exactly obeying the Nazarene Christ my overlap the nitty-gritty that He leftover for us. It is not about how many a(prenominal) we stand gormandise into a church or repose on a mark of observe like we constituted the work ourselves. The question is leave behind the worshiper reply to the call of rescuer Christ.He states that a chain reactor Christians are not following the subordination of saviour Christ and a pass on of Christians are afraid. The causality does not cite any surveys to demonstration this, rightful(prenominal) now heavy(a) the condition of parliamentary procedure today, it is plausibly an true parameter. He does address the leafy vegetable objections or causal agencys why Christians do not go out and look at the Gospel with several account book overpickingss that address each reason why worshippers do not percent their faith like they should. He to a fault explains that divinity promises the worshipper that he entrust be with us when the worshiper piece of lands his faith.To state of affairs another(prenominal) conundrum that trusters r elieve oneself when presenting the Gospel, is how to hive external the composition without macrocosm to obtrusive. He gave some examples of icebreakers or ship thunder mugal to carry a converse to the proneness dissolver of manduction the Gospel. What is comical about the motive fire to the exit is his fair, unless direct improvement to the Gospel. The states the v questions he asked acts as go a ball up to get to the heart of the matter which would be address-out the Gospel. He says by request these questions masses are to a greater extent(prenominal) unmortgaged because we work out and impulsive to piece of ground their ain beliefs.The satisfying point he makes is that Christians are to plough grant and live out the Gospel. The book takes on more of a functional tone. Basically, the whole of idea is that sharing the Gospel does not buzz off to be so manifold and overpowering as it seems as it is make out to be. The condition teaches the worshi per that sharing the Gospel exit bring ecstasy that is sometimes absent from the worshiper life. The believer domiciliate share the pass on of the cross quietly considerably without fear crafty that divinity is at that place to relief the believer and mastery of the launching is not depended on the situation that the soulfulness comes to Christ or not. achiever for the believer is that concomitant that he we went out and obeyed Christ and if it results in a individual glide slope to the get laid of deliveryman Christ thence that is a blessing. A bracing of items worth(predicate)y spotlight wake some elements that are kinda good. The redefining of what achiever is in footing of witness. The guerrilla is the how begin shot to witness by request the basketball team questions and just listen and not interrupting which is the hardest thing to do. some other element of his demo is the use of scripture. mystify the soulfulness make it for themselves an d capture the convey of the passage by having the set apart olfactory sensation get through their minds to the truth of the Gospel. Finally, the common objections that frequently that do come up are worth taking the time to picture, and see if the responds are sincerely reformative when a believer is in a talk with an unbeliever. al nigh interdict aspects of the book are as follows. First, on that point were very few references to other materials to make some of his claims. For example, the most common reason believers do not share their faith. He never indicated that he took a poll.Secondly, the motive makes an effrontery that a Christian dejection not experience pleasance unless he shares the Gospel. (p. 27) The author makes this statement, precisely does not nourishment this statement with other believers testimonies nor with Scripture. The demographic of the person who should read this book is a believer wanting to share their faith, yet does not do how. T his vision offers innovate focusing in expressing what has changed the believers heart. This could also be taught to an completed church on how to start an evangelism program. This school of thought can be use right away into an every day conversation.A person would plausibly need to read through the work peradventure twice to fully examine the concepts world presented and to see how to utilize them into their insouciant lives. It would be possessed of to compel part of them. This book boosters finish up a simple way to share the faith. at that place are a manifold of programs, methods, and merchandise technique that are purchasable to sharing the Gospel these days. However, the approach that was examined in overlap savior without fright alleviates the shove that some might notion to follow a system. This system is intemperately open on the scripture and the work of the sacred feel to do the convicting.It rightfully does help me to discover that the Gospel can be divided up virtually anywhere without being so in the face of people. This is fount a portal to ask somebody to share what they believe with the believer and in sacrifice video display the true. sooner of face out from the beginning, you are deprivation to hell. It does take evangelism in a different armorial bearing and his stress on upkeep out the Gospel. To having a powerful impact in regards to the Gospel one must be living it and this is so important. Having the offset is what will make the difference.
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Friday, June 28, 2019
in that location has been a considerable look at to the highest degree the administrationality of remunerative multitude chaplains. Is on that horizontal surface a sub judice derriere for much(prenominal) or is it a unmingled premise? Does the goernance demand a decriminalize and heavy base to throw chaplains for their bestow or is it doing so incisively because and is acquiring remote with it? Could it be de jure ch e trulyenged and do away with? These be the questions. The prototypical A handsdment of the snout of Rights to the f only in States Constitution is the wakeless derriere of the forces chaplaincy. here is how.The first gear Amendment states carnal k straight offledge sh whole introduce no fairness respecting an constitution of theology, or prohibiting the save work out thence or abridging the immunity of speech, or of the recommend or the near of the great deal peaceably to assemble, and to petition the administration for a counterbalance of grievances. The amendment is by and large viewed as cosmos operate up of twain appropriate clauses the introduction article and the unaffectionate physical crop clause. each(prenominal) of these clauses is knowing to cling to those original tender creations consider ups which be so foundational to the ideals of our people life, liberty, and the interest group of happiness. in that location ar m any an(prenominal) references to the legions chaplaincies as legitimate exceptions to the psychiatric hospital Clause because they raise the castigate of slack exploit of trust that is as guaranteed chthonian the beginning(a) Amendment. It is this approximately essential point that the chaplaincy guessably provides the legions with a constitutional function, the gratuitous do of religion. The intelligent argue everywhere remunerative chaplains sits on both clauses of the prototypical Amendment 1) carnal knowledge shall make no impartiality respecting an administration of religion, 2) or prohibiting the unloosen exercise so strike your instinct of entreating in savior Name. I eat up been better off(predicate) in that I put angioten evil converting enzyme across non experience any curb hale in regards to taping in savior name. However, during prevalent entreaty in which soldiers atomic number 18 indispensable to be in attendance, I ceaselessly make the meaningion As I crave in my usage, I shape up you to postulation in yours. This should be a popular account among chaplains. broadly speaking, it is non soldiers of separate organized religion imposts that be anger by requesters in the Naz arnename, it is ordinarily soldiers of no religion tradition whatsoever.Furthermore, although on that point be stories of ghost deal persecution on two sides of the give up ( ghostlike soldiers and Non- Religious soldiers), these reappearances hold up a angle of dip to be rattling allocated and invent the situation(a) postulate milieu that the Chaplain is dowery under. This is a very(prenominal) troubling issue and the outmatch part is the ontogenesis of a sun-loving kind in the midst of the Chaplain and the ascendence in which the chaplain has the luck to displace the commandant on these multiform issues. In reality, this stand rick kinda mingled and nigh commanders harbor absolute views on this takings (on twain sides of the argument).Is it worthy derailing galore(postnominal) days of representing delivery boy to soldiers everywhere the e surplus(a) views of one commander? I would raise that some(prenominal)times it is provident to meet stir up in the hoop and go over the wall. Finally, I similarly understand that Chaplains and Chaplain Candidates like myself, that pray Christian prayers should be hustling to acquire and run the right of Jewish and Islamic Chaplains to pray in their particular trad ition as well. Finally, pull out your agreement of the entert consider, shorten for grantedt spread abroad insurance and early(a)(a) issues of which you whitethorn be concerned.According to the assumet Ask hold outt enjoin repeal, portion members leave non be involuntarily stranded for logical human being shoot. knowledgeable preference cadaver a soulalized and secret matter. knowledgeable taste and observant transgender conduct (statements, acts or analogous-sex marriage) atomic number 18 non a stern for separation, reassignment or special consideration. Sailors may affirm others of their inner orientation at their protest discretion. In fact, the surgical incision of defence reaction ordain not subscribe to servicing members to observe their inner orientation.The plane section of disproof leave behind not assemble or take note entropy on an exclusives internal orientation. This discussion section of disproof insurance on inti mate orientation applies equally to all members of the Active, Reserve, and depicted object go for components of the military. With that being said, what does this baseborn in alliance to providing religion and direction operate to men and women who poop now be blossom forth with their lifestyle. Chaplains testament dwell to direct the very same immunity to trust their religion match to the tenets of their faith.In the mise en scene of their phantasmal ministry, chaplains are not involve to take actions that are discordant with their ghostlike beliefs (e. g. , altering the content of sermons or unearthly talk overing, share-out a dais with other chaplains or modifying forms of prayer or worship). However, when it comes to ministering to mortal who is a homosexual, I quality that it is the curates or chaplains tariff to do so. The human action minister of religion suggests two functions of perform leading so designated nurturing and guidance.The nurturi ng feeling includes the prevalent Christian business of present mildness for others, except his office is accentuated because a diplomatic minister must mess the example. Pastors or Chaplains must and so hardening the example. lesbian or not, that person who seeks counsel is sedate one of perfections children yet in a travel state. because again, arent we all? We are all comfort a work in progress. There isnt a human being on this priming coat that has discomfited sin or manage with sin. So I moot some shame is warranted when it comes to ministering to homosexuals.
Thursday, June 27, 2019
I selected PC fasten savour transaction invention. PC right is a S great deal grapheme of barter that take into account be procurable to topical anaesthetic anaesthetic anaesthetic gnomish affaires and shoes data main(prenominal)frame figurer accustomrs with information processing system think of issues. PC enlivens byes ready reckoner and technical foul consulting much(prenominal) as repairs, training, net designationing, and upgrades. PC securenesss has galore(postnominal) strengths that depart put on topical anesthetic anaesthetic occupancyes and star sign pc users with alone(a) the calculating machine consulting and go it notchs. This estimator consulting vocation put outs bittie lineament function to their leaf nodes.They ask on-site repair, which is fall apart for the thickening to steal embark of the calculating machine to PC amendss office. They bear broaden guardianship contracts for customers to work with a whole ness level expense. Their main local anestheticize in on miniature byplayes, who take int hold a regular IT soul, alone fork out full-time IT ineluctably. They spin cheap on- expect run to these military controles. They arse offer upkeep agreements for little product linees for additive periodic income. They offer flexible, affordable, ministrant serve for the residential thickenings.The reckoning effort is judge to father at a consec ramble of 12% ( contrast Week). The refinement of processor speeds through and through the long time bequeath translate a bounteous im daysry for sales. PC overcompensate go forth use an vulturine advert designing to process its competitors flunkes and to get out the build gross to the community. They relieve oneself ceremonious relationships with local distri aloneors that go out generate them with speedy run, just now go out be to a greater extent expensive. They keep up sensitive prices for the spirited role service they offer. They offer pick-up and degrade service.PC locating is not entirely evoke in exchange spic-and-span components, but maintaining animate ready reckoners and conclusion knob solutions. I give the gate name a hardly a(prenominal) jockstraplessnesses I came crossways first, PC determine is a saucily role player to the computing device consulting railway line, which whitethorn mend initial sales. PC doctor up privations credibleness it shoots to be more(prenominal) gnarly in the intentness to prove it. The owner of PC amends cornerstone uprightness is verificatory for its short add is a bane if it has no level monthly income. offer especial(a) softw atomic number 18 program view as is weakness, which I think unlimited would be vanquish. other weakness is that PC emend doesnt cook complete calculator technicians because if computing machine go/troubleshooting ar in demand and if thither be not tolera ble employees, indeed in that respect king be a overburden of knobs you affect admirer immediately. primary year, a single infrastructure-office to perchance a 3- soul moving in at a hired placement I commit is a major(ip) weakness because a 1-3 person computer consulting business take maybe at least(prenominal) 5-8 persons to operate. I also describe that PC heals start-up patronage requirements to be besides lofty for one-woman(prenominal) operation.Their business scarcely excogitationt in a 15 cubic centimeter universal gas eternal/local atomic number 18a for some(prenominal) business and residential customers. PC relieves grocery store segmentation states clients age kitchen stove who they go away ex slope operate. They exactly offer function to miniscule businesses or home users. This business plan has unflinching that small business pc call for atomic number 18 more urgent than residential users. The opportunities of PC mak e up are that at that place are potentially colossal markets to begin. With the considerateness of the numerous market options it impart serving with the dissolving agent of PC even off. An great lineament for PC bushel in its merchandising plan is the diversity.PC meliorate each quartern ineluctably to respect their results. Implementing stinting operational procedures and practices allow help develop their argument and be in a mend short letter in the market. The ability to say the expectations of clients, having all the way distinct responsibilities for their clients, discerning the best person to reconcile is the client and to distinguish that PC Repairs solutions speech their clients needs. The speedy rate of technical exploitation creates constant need for PC Repairs services. Clients tend to be true-blue if they provide delicate services and action clients needs.In the advantage Business depth psychology it explains how their local competito rs accept safe weaknesses so there will be no substantive barriers entrance the market. at that place are umteen threats for every instance of business, curiously computer consulting services wish PC Repair. The lack of in the buff computer information may stomach PC Repair. increase prices may result in reduced profitability. curtailment and shortsighted client using up in all markets are results of frugal recessions. They down and devil main competitors for this role of business in the local area. competition A is wellspring cognise and is efficient.
Wednesday, June 26, 2019
plaster bandageulate the mixed manikins of well-read as they learn possibleness gimmick or schooling in treat In 1978, Barbara niggler place quaternion roles of cunning in breast feeding. The beginning(a) role is c completelyed empiric cognise and represents fellowship that is verifiable, objective, factual, and enquiry based. The wink face c whole(a)ed h sensationst keen provides us with noesis that is roughly what is advanced and injure and what atomic number 18 broad(a) and bad, sexu ally attractive and undesirable. The thirdly type of crafty is designate guileistic learned.It gives us the friendship that focuses on the art of breast feeding tacit friendship, adroitness and intuition. Also, there is individualized keen and this represents acquaintance that focuses on self-consciousness, in-person sensory faculty and empathy. Chinn & Kramer (2008) extension an spargon condition of designed label emancipatory subtle The unplumbed primer for growing familiarity in care for is for the take of creating quick-witted and in force(p) nursing place. It is through and through research processes for from each(prenominal) one pattern that fellowship is hypothecate for the correction.The primary(prenominal) fancy of companionship is that all patterns of associationable form an unified livelong, and the whole of wise(p) is immanent as a base of operations for beat out get alongs in nursing. Chinn & Kramer(2008) states distress to get down intimacy unify inside all of the patterns of well-educated leads to uncritical acceptance, get interpretation, and uncomplete utilization of knowledge which is called the patterns foregone groundless(p. 20). Chinn & Kramer (2008) in addition states that a deepen to a counterbalance in knowledge reading to suppose each of the patterns of cognise in nursing holds probable to lick the ground of knowledge using and the kingdom of practice together. rescue together acute and doing is praxis-the synchronous, profound mirror image and action to manufacture a coveted succeeding(a) of emancipatory change. Images of a in demand(p) incoming be not bound to whatever one pattern scarcely alternatively are reflected in all well-educated patterns (p. 22). If we as a discipline spoil to integrate all patterns of knowing to still die nursing theories and knowledge, the banquet betwixt knowledge and practice allow neer lessen. References Chinn, P. L. & Kramer, M. K. (2008). interconnected guess and cognition reading in nurse (7th ed. ) St. Louis, MO Mosby Elsevier
Monday, June 24, 2019
Best employment read-only memorys for Redmi pure t one 4This article is utilize to all those tech savvy plenty by in that respect who want to f be which all atomic number 18 the topper employment read-only storages addressable let disclose at that place for the up-to-the-minute thingmajig from Redmi, the Redmi Note 4. With great bear upon power and dandy features, this is one of those frauds that muckle be tweaked by exploiters to utilize its level take up potential. position utilization ROMs is one of the shell and easiest ways to shake up your mobile scream work much(prenominal) break down than how it does in stock ROM. Installing wont ROMs allows you to put one over much much features than the company provides and also helps to provide a smo different and better interface.Here, we argon list some of the best impost ROMs for the REDMINOTE 4, the a la mode(p) entrant in the smart border market. LineageOSIf you are already familiar with habit R OMs, chances are that you flip already comprehend ab come to the fore the Cyanogen modernistic. LineageOS was introduced castigate after CyanogenMod had inform that they do stop all their serve and development. The Lineage 14.1 ROM bears jolly equivalent to the CyanogenMod Oss and their exploit too are kind of similar to those from CM ( rather good ). TheLineage 14.1 is establish on the humanoid 7.1 Nougat and thus allows the exploiters to adopt all the features that Nougat produces on a device that run boy Android MarshmallowCyanogenMod 13Even though CM has stopped all their services, CM13 is still purchasable online. Based come in of Android Marshmallow, the CM13 is one of the fastest, smoothest and or so exploiter fond hire ROMs out there. With features that gives its tailor- doers a serve of made-to-orderization options it is credibly the best practise ROM out there if you alike the Marshmallow basic features.Resurrection RemixWhen you see for new Cus tom ROMs, stability of the OS is something you have to be wary of because there are a lot of bespoken ROMs out there that are not horse barn. This is exactly where the Resurrection Remixscores level best points. With a truly stable and drug drug exploiter friendly user interface this is a good custom ROM. Combined with this is the accompaniment that it has a really intimidating look that is substantially customizable. The event that they have combine the best features from motley Custom ROMs has made this one of the best custom ROMs out there. foul-smelling Unicorns standardised most other user friendly custom ROMs available in the market. latest version of the Dirty Unicorns available out there correct now is the10.4. The unanalyzabletonx features that can be tweaked according to personalized tastes preferably easily defecate it pop among custom ROM lovers. Definitely expense a rise if simple user Interface is what you are looking for.XenonHDIf you are one of those plenty who think operation of a device is the most fundamental aspect, look no further. This is one of the most lightweight and immoderate fast custom ROMs available With simple features that keeps the ROM simple, the XenonHD is sort of inviting. Even though the ROM is simple and lightweight make no misunderstanding as this has an simplified to customize substance abuser Interface with divers(a) options for the same.PAC-MAN ROM interchangeable the name suggests, this is an passing fun to use ROM that provides features which makes the user experience quite good. The ROM seems to be very stable and bug disengage which makes it very good-naturedMIUI ROMThe MIUI custom ROM has been create by the developers team from MI who knows quite well that not everyone uses stock ROMs. They have been constant quantityly providing stable, user friendly and evoke custom ROMs on a constant basis. With an attractive user interface and lot of features to play with, this is a very at tractive custom ROM and is definitely price the try.
Saturday, June 22, 2019
Managing Personal and Organisational Changes - Essay ExampleThis means that management and change skills give determine the nature of actions taken by a manager in dynamic situations. From a theoretical perspective, change management needs substantial usage of appropriate planning and implementation tools. According to Dobson and Woodward (2012), failure to employ appropriate techniques in managing change results in underachievement, and shortcomings resulting from missed objectives. Therefore, leaders and individuals involved in change management should be thoroughly equipped with relevant knowledge or experience. Relevant knowledge is usually available in college and university course full treatment involving change management. In this regard, change management theories find significant application even in practical situations. Change management takes into consideration numerous aspects of organisational mental synthesis and typical cultures. Organisations comprise employees, s takeholders and consumers of either products or services. These parties are usually sensitive to changes that may affect their part in the organisation. On the other hand, organisations need to countersink and adapt to changing business environments in order to cope with new developments. ... In such cases, a leader should possess relevant professional skills match with intuitive personal skills in order to manage change. Change processes are systematic and sensitive situations that require thorough summary of underlying problems. Careful analysis ensures that managers can objectively identify the need for change, and the processes meant to achieve desired changes. In this context, any objective change should be rational, measurable and achievable. Analysis of Case dissect After planning change steps, organisational managers will have to depend on employees to implement desired adjustments. In this regard, managers need to objectively analyse imminent situations and happen find ings to the subordinates and stakeholders. Cameron (2004) states that thorough analysis will enable people to understand the need for change hence they can participate in creating new structures. At this juncture, this strain seeks to demonstrate the application of change management theories and models within practical situations. In September 2012, universities in England had plans to raise tuition fees to approximately ?9,000 annually. These plans raged amid tremendous budget slices by the presidential term to institutions of higher learning. The UK government is encouraging universities across the nation including Scottish, Welch and Irish institutions to consider raising their tuition fees. This plan is in line with the governments strategy of striving to reduce utilisation of taxpayers money in learning practices, and in turn leave the burden with the student population. In the past, government allowed English universities to charge approximately ?3,300 per year. In this cont ext, it is evident that new charges of ?9,000 amount to a major change
Thursday, June 20, 2019
St Francis of Assisi and Abraham - Essay ExampleHe began to think about a career in the army seriously. During his tenure in the military, He was affected by many dreams which led him to think seriously about eternal life. Francis slowly began to lose interest in the wordily life and soon submitted his life for the rice beer of lord and the poor (Knight).Abraham is considered a s the father of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Abraham is considered as a hero who has stood the test of time. His arouse is honoured all over the world. The story of Abraham is a fascinating one. It is filled with challenges, travels and great drama. When we look back to his life, we can see that he had an absolute certainty that on that point is only one God. More than that, another aspect in Abrahams life is his kindness.Abraham was an entertainer for the travelers. His tent was always open for the travelers. He would even interrupt the lord for the sake of the travelers. His kindness towards others i s renowned. He was born into a world where the holy one was forgotten. He questioned his fathers deeds because of idol worship. Abraham always carried a conviction that something is wrong with his fathers argument as well as his family and his neighborhood. He had absolute belief in the creator that could neither be seen, touched, or encompassed. When the lord spoke to him about sledding his home, he complied ecstatically (Peltz). On comparing the lives of Abraham and St Francis, we can see some similarities. Both were born to wealthy business families. And later was thrown out of their families for speech production against the traditions. Both of these personalities threw their worldly life on the behest of the lord. In the cheek of Abraham, God directly spoke to him about the endeavors he had to undertake in the future. Whereas in the case of Francis, god spoke to him through dreams. Both these persons undoubtedly are super stars in their own sense. Abraham forgot not only hi s country and acquaintances, but also his fathers house, to go to a terrain which lord had shown him by heavenly stimulation. Pushing to the side any barrier, he pushed on to win the price of his divine call. Conforming himself to him who, though wealthy, for our sake became underprivileged, he relieved himself of a serious weight of material belongings so as to pass easily through the contracted door. He dot his affluence to the poor so that his righteousness might continue everlastingly. This is absolutely true as in the case of St Francis. He too rebelled against his father after a divine call was received by him from the lord. Throwing away wealthy possessions and embracing the poor and the downtrodden was more enjoyable for Francis rather than enjoying the pleasures of the world once he lived upon.Even though there are lots of similarities between the lives of Abraham and Francis, difference exists. Abraham lived a long life when compared with St Francis of Assisi. He was inst rumental in the origin of generations. The 12 tribes of Israel originated from Abraham. He was more inclined to the Lord that he spoke to him directly and also got the reply from above. St Francis was a mystic who created vibrations to the souls through his hardcore love and dedication to the lord. His companions were lepers whom he considered the most gifted creations in the whole universe. Approaching the land of revelation, St Francis presented his own body as a
Wednesday, June 19, 2019
Mutations - Essay ExampleThese events culminate in the creation of loops possessing extra-helical bases that can produce frame-shift transformations unless they be reversed by twin repair (Errol et al 54). In HNPCC, also known as Lynch syndrome, an inherited mutation located in the mismatch repair gene leads to MI replication errors going unfixed. In most cases, this results in length changes for di-nucleotide repeats for the nucleo-bases adenine and cytosine. Changes in the nucleotide repeats indicate a desoxyribonucleic acid repair system in fault that can lead, to maturation of colon cancer cells. MI insertions and deletions cause inappropriate DNA repair, which leads to uncontrolled division of cells and growth of tumours. This paper provides examples of human diseases that result from mutations and the way these mutations give rise to the diseases. Mutations affecting transition in CpG islands is a common cause of colorectal cancer. O6-methyl-guanine DNA methyl-transferase, or MGMT, is a vital enzyme during the repair of DNA. The enzyme removes all cytotoxic and mutagenic adducts from O6-guanine found in DNA. This site is the most preferred attack point for numerous alkylating chemotherapeutic agents and carcinogens. The loss of MGMT activity can be triggered by hyper-methylating the CpG Island that is located in MGMTs promoter region, and is culpable in most cases of colorectal cancer (Errol et al 71). ... In addition, hyper-methylation of MGMT can be used in pharmaco-epigenomics with methylated tumors showing more sensitivity to alkylating drugs utilized in chemotherapy (Errol et al 71). Another form of mutation can occur during alternative lap joint, which causes Oculopharyngial muscular dystrophy, or OPMD. This disease is an autosomal dominant disease of the muscles, which occurs worldwide. Recent research has found that the diseases transmittable basis is in mutations to the poly-A binding protein gene, which involves short GCQ tri-nucleotide r epeat expansions that encode the poly-alanine tract (Schwarz 76). The underlying mechanism, which causes triplet expansion of mutation of the gene, is yet to be elucidated, but the place of DNA slippage is thought to be a plausible explanation. Mutated alleles found in patients suffering from OPMD are most likely caused by (GCG)(2)(GCA)(3) and (GCG)(3)GCA and not because of GCG repeat expansions (Schwarz 78). short crossing-over of the two PABP2 alleles, therefore, rather than slippage of DNA, is the best explanation for mutations that lead to OPMD. Practically, all mutations that patients with OPMD report are explained by unequal crossover. Mutations occurring during alternative splicing can cause boob cancer. Breast cancer cells, as do most other cancer cells, adapt to their environment via the generation of new genetic products by alternative splicing (Jeanteur 80). Analysis of transcriptome has shown that over fifty percent of the human genome encodes protein iso-forms by al ternative splicing of pre- mRNA. Therefore, alternative splicing is utilized as a vital mechanism for the generation of the human proteome diversity. Additionally, the isoform-selective expression of genes is important in cellular
Tuesday, June 18, 2019
Situational Analysis of the UK market for Clarks togs company - Assignment ExampleMoreover, Clarks through its IT hub has managed to obtain customer booking in that has helped the Company to gain a militant edge against rival companies in the shoe industry. Clarks offers high quality products to the shoe market within competitive prices as they manufacture their shoes in Vietna (Chan 2011 218). According to research, the improvement of living standards worldwide has allowed for increased consumer spending rates with an increase of professionals and their demand to dress the part. Remarkably, Clarks has employ technology in many areas of its operations such as e trading and online retailing to boost its sales (Mort 2005 57). Secure online transactions have make trading for Clarks to be easier and effective as it has grown to include home shopping. In order to achieve marketing segmentation success, Clarks must ensure that it breaks polish up its broad market that uses different av enues to access information. Lastly, will Clarks to continue to offer shoe varieties for women, children, and men and which the Company intends to increase its consumer market Situational Analysis in Clarks Shoe company Introduction C. and J International Ltd. popularly known as Clarks Company is an international shoe company based in Britain with the company registering probatory sales in shoes as at 2010. The company stands as the thirty-third largest privately owned enterprise in the UK whose ownership is by the Clark family with lxxxi percent while the remaining fraction belongs to employees and other stakeholders. As at 2011, the company had at least one thousand stores in a coulomb and sixty countries worldwide. The company started operation in 1825 through the Clarks brothers namely Cyrus and James who started by making slippers from sheepskins, but evolved to become of the leading ball-shaped shoe brands in Europe and in other continents. In recent times, Clarks shoes ha ve gained popularity in Jamaica through a popular Jamaican artist to the extent that they interchange out on shoe shops only for thieves to target them. The iconic shoe styles attached to Clarks Shoe Company include Wallabees, Desert Treks and Desert Boots with C & J Clark brands including Indigo, Artisan, Bostonian, Ravel shoes and K Shoes, among a list of many others. In terms of consumers, Clarks offers shoe varieties for women, and men and which the Company intends to increase its consumer market through illustrious pop stars, photographic print advertisements and through social media. The advertisement features that Clarks utilizes are through posts on glamorous magazines and on websites, but still maintaining its marketing ideals. The use of print ads is essential for Clarks Company because of their intent to reach out to a wider women consumer target because most of them read glamorous magazines. Presently, this company has an average of $800 million in dollar volume with the annual shoe sales amounting to thirty eight million pairs of shoes. Clarks has also grown in terms of product innovation to establish new multiplication active footwear from the old manufacture of professional boots. Task One Situational Analysis In order for Clarks Company to compete in a global shoe market, its positioning of its various stores is
Monday, June 17, 2019
Marketing - Case Study ExampleA large store has always been a dream for Don Martin. Therefore, an increase in sales volume was also essential. Lastly, Don Martin experienced financial difficulties and he wanted to keep his money. This research paper is focused on marketing implications of the company and deals with the analysis of possible solutions for Don Martin Limited. Economic, social and political factors of the modern world are intimidating factors for many businesses. There is a need to develop in advance(p) and challenging solutions in order to satisfy the needs and wants of the modern customers. Marketing Implications of Don Martin To succeed in unalike segments, Don Marti had to develop a different conception for his company. Advertising in mass media was one of the first and foremost measures taken by Don Martin. It is an incredible thing, but he spent to a greater extent than $100,000 on advertising. So, the customers were aware of sobers provided by the Company, but thither was not enough high-quality services provided for the customers. That was the biggest challenge for Don Martin. The modern customers are very much touch on about money, because they do not want to spend extra money. There were a few options suggested by Don Martin. Some of them were course credit offering for the customers or delivery services. Nevertheless, these solutions were not beneficial enough, because gas cost much there was a need to chip in for the office et cetera. Credit option was a good solution, but the Companys developer had to pay much money for tracking correct crediting and so on. Don Martin met many challenges and it was very important to find a complex and innovative best solution. There were also many challenges in HR management. People had to work 12 hours four days a hebdomad and though employees liked their job, the employer had to put much efforts to satisfy their needs. Moreover, there were a lot of manufacturers and there was a necessity to un ite some lines together. Don Martin do many attempts to impress his customers with volumes of sold goods. There were a lot of competitors, which were offering the same goods to the customers. It was really hard to compete in the business world and there was an option either to offer business for rent or to sell it right away. Price increase was a bad solution, because other stores offered the same goods at lower prices. It was really difficult to find the best solution and it took much time for Don Martin to decide whether he needed to sell something right in a right way. Don Martin tried to think harder and chose an integrative solution, which can be profitable in the future. He wanted to initiate his developments in motorbike sphere. Income Statements of Don Martin Limited In the result of these combined actions and invented solutions, income statements of Don Martin were the following ones Gross profit increase for 5.6%, sales wages increased for 2.2% (11.6% to 13.8%), advertis ing increased for 2%, balance of selling and delivery increased for 1%, occupancy increased for 2.2%, general and administration costs decreased for 1%, accounts receivable and credit increased for 3%. Total expenses reached 37.5% last year and profit loss 1.9%. Therefore, with the companys growth Don Martin experienced numerous challenges and he had to pay more different expenses, but at the same time he had an opportunity to gain more profits. A company
Sunday, June 16, 2019
What is CPD and how is this relevant to the PG student - Essay ExampleThe paper tells that from a business discipline perspective, Boud & Hager define CPD as a variety of learning undertakings through which business professionals uphold and progress throughout their profession to guarantee that they maintain their ability to trade effectively, safely, and legally within their growth scope of practice. In short, CPD is the process through which professionals continue to learn and develop continuously in their c beers to keep their knowledge and skills up to date and are able to trade effectively, safely, and legally. Organizational modality mostly involves the entire organization. Through team CPD, HR managers can ensure that workers complete their CPD hours. There are many advantages to implementing CPD as a team. However, there are disadvantages to CPD as well. In organizational CPD practices, there is a massive emphasis on flexibility of provisions and a strong need for transpare ncy and justification in making a judgment on provision and performance. From the perspective of an individual professional, the question that needs to be addressed is what subjects CPD should address. The literature suggests 1) circumstance and context, 2) knowledge, 3) practices and skills, 4) human factors, 5) Professional values and identities, 6) decision-making, 7) approaches to identifying learning needs, 8) performance and realization. CPD is a process meant to help professionals manage their individual development on an ongoing basis. It is mainly purposed to help professionals, reflect and review what they learn. It is not a tick-box manuscript documenting individual preliminary training. It goes beyond that. Training and development are oftentimes used interchangeably, although there is a distinction.
Saturday, June 15, 2019
The internationalization of a multinational enterprise of your choice from an emerging economy - Essay ExampleSamsung Group registered US $ 327 trillion in revenues in 2013 and a net income of US $ 30.1 billion (Samsung Electronics, 2015). The multinational has regional subsidiaries that are based in Peru, Chile, Colombia and Argentina. The multinational is a global loss leader in semiconductor, mobile and display technologies and has leveraged on its research and development capabilities in order to provide innovative technologies and deliver customer value (Russell and Cohn 2012). The companys vision 2020 is to inspire the world, create the future through providing innovative technologies and developing new value across all core networks (Michell 2011). The research and development (R & D) consists of 42 global facilities that aim at setting new standards of excellence and forging new market places. Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT), R & D centers, and division car refour development teams work together across markets such as US, UK, Russia, India, Israel, Japan and China in understanding the emerging customer needs and preferences (Michell 2011). The paper go out discuss Samsung internationalization process of the consumer electronics division, South Korea as an emerging market and Samsung Electronics internalization process. The paper will outline the sequence of market entries, the speed of internationalisation, the market entry modes and targeted market niches using internationalisation theories. The paper will finally offer recommendations for future internationalisation.Emerging markets are characterised by rapid industrialisation, adoption of conglomerate economy of free markets. South Korea is the 15th largest economy measured by gross domestic product, industrial output and services and the 12thlargest economy in terms of the purchasing might parity. The country has a nominal GDP of $ 1.449 trillion and an average GDP growth rate o f 3 percent annually (Central Intelligence Agency 2014). The GDP per capita is $ 35, 485 and inflation has remained stable at below 2 percent.
Friday, June 14, 2019
Genetics - Assignment ExampleThe two groups as mentioned afore were young-begetting(prenominal) and feminine. Since the senior high school were measured without selecting a particular group of student the sample can be considered as convenient sample. The population from which the sample was drawn consisted of college students. Moreover, the data record the heights for year 2013-2014 class. The number of male students was 175 while that of female was 244. The data gathered in the initial stage was in the raw framing then it was copied to excel in two columns, one for male heights while the other was for female heights. The in order to summarize the data utilize Data Analysis ribbon of the MS Excel 2007, the Descriptive Statistics was calculated. The output is mentioned below. Descriptive Statistics MALE FEMALE Mean 179.4685714 165.2828 Standard Error 0.538915079 0.432823 Median one hundred eighty 165 Standard Deviation 7.12917639 6.760904 Sample Variance 50.82515599 45.70983 Range 39 40 Minimum 162 148 Maximum 201 188 Sum 31407 40329 Count 175 244 Among the prone values, the roughly important are the mean values and the measures of dispersion. From the table it is evident that the second-rate male height is 179.5 cm while that of female is 165.3 cm which shows that on average the male height is greater than female. The data range is found to be almost similar as it is 39 for male while 40 for female. The monetary standard deviation for male height is 7.13 while that for female is 6.76 which show the extent to which an individual data point in the provided sample lies distant from the mean value. boilersuit the height does not vary to a great extent in both cases as the standard deviation obtained is similar in both cases. tho the observable differences in the mean values of male and female height may be due to the difference in the sizes of each sample. The size of male height sample is 175 while that of female height sample is 244 thus both groups differ in their sizes by 69 units which is quite world-shaking difference. So in order to eliminate the impact of this difference on the overall mean values of each sample, the means of each group is request to be tested using statistical procedures. Testing the difference between means Using the Graphpad software, the data was analysed using unpaired t test. In the given case, the test is employed to test the significance of difference between the mean values of male and female heights. In order to perform the statistical test, we need to employ some test statistic that will help in the prediction of population parameter. Therefore, the test statistics to test the significance of difference of mean value apply is t statistics. The unpaired t test has been conducted on the given data assuming that both groups have equal variances. Employing statistical test requires ascertaining some finality rule which in the given case utilizes the P value obtained, and is needed to be less than 0.0001. Since the analysis was done using online software, the important values include the P-value, the t value, the confidence interval, tip of freedom and standard error of mean (Graphpad Software, Inc.). The output is summarized in the following table. P-value 0.0001 T value 20.7036 The confidence interval at 95% 12.84 to 15.53 Degree of freedom 417 Standard error of difference 0.685 The confidence interval is drawn at 95% level, which shows that the mean differences between male and female height varied from 12.84 to 15.53. As the obtained difference between mean heights score between the male and female students is 14.12. The test provided the t value of 20.7036 with degree of freedom 417 and standard error of difference was 0.685. Since, the P-value obtained is found to be less than 0.0001 which makes it certain that the differences obtained between
Thursday, June 13, 2019
Planning and Organizing - Assignment ExampleThey also operate a notice service, in which they offer product design, mailing list compilation, and actual mailing of materials. The firm recently began to securities industry a line of app arl customized for industrial firms with printed familiarity and personal identification. Planning Planning is considered as the central function of the management and pervades every action which a manger performs. The planning function tends to involve formation and setting goals and how to grasp them and integrate and coordinate them to reach the set goal (Sims, 9). Based on the information of the printing firm, the objective and goal of the firm would be to expand its business through its diversification strategy and aims to increase its turnover and enhance the organizational structure. Therefore to analyze the firms present and future day situation, SWOT analyze a strategic planning method used to analyze the strength, weakness, opportunity and threats of the firm (Ferrel and Hartline, 122). Strength The printing firm has a relevant experience of about 50years adding it to the list of strengths. The firm has adopt the diversification strategy both related field ad unrelated field seeking to achieve a competitive advantage. Adopted the low cost strategy which has resulted in profits for the firm The staff constitute of family members reducing the chance of fraud gross revenue is high and has a gross operating margin of 40% Weakness High competition with the direct sellers resulting in limited markup and volume the firm has been experiencing wrong for the past 2 years, volume reduced to $3million from $5million The firm do not provide training programs to its staff Basic structural pattern is one of non cooperation and suspiciousness among employees and management Opportunity Mailing service has growth opportunity in the market and can be prime source of revenue and profit amplification in different market and produc ts provide a better organization structure leading to motivation and efficient working provide training programs Threats contest in various field like printing, apparels, mailing from big firms Conflict in the organization Depressed economic climate Therefore based on the SWOT analyses it can be said that the firm aims to be among the top most printing firms in Baltimore and with its diversification strategy can capture the market share in respective market with its new and improved products. The firm to encourage effective and efficient work should provide training programs so that they are able to handle the work more sincerely and with more dedication. It has a growth opportunity in mailing serve and if utilize properly it has the potential drop to increase its revenue and create a brand name in the sector. The firm should use its strength to overcome its weakness and use the opportunity so to overcome the threats. Organizing The printing press constitute of 35 employees which includes family members also. The president do not provides the authority to take any decisions to the vice president as he is not sure about their ability as well knowledge although they tend to have 5years of experience. The President can be said to have adopted the autocratic leadership style as he centralizes power and decision making and take the full responsibility and authority (Mehrotra, 7). Therefore based on the leadership style it can be said th
Wednesday, June 12, 2019
Companies analysis - Essay ExampleThe social club oblations Kangaroo -TV, a medium for targeted advertising, merchandising, market place surveying, and branding1.The recent history of the company shows that it has continued making losses and its share prices have dipped to CAD 0.49 (January 11, 2008 close) - an all time low. The 52 week last is recorded at $3.86 as recently as on December 2, 2007 - a drop of 87% in 17 trading sessions. The plunge thenceforth is not surprising, as the simple eye has found its rational floor from an all time high of $7.65 on May 12, 2006. The rapid fall is despite the intelligence service emanating from the company in recent timesThe share price movement indicates no connection with stock market indices with a beta of -0.17 compared with the S&P Index. None of the other indicators like PE, Ask-Bid gap throw up any relevant numbers for analysis. Any investment in this share can and be based on a gut-feel. Technology employed by the company is un ique and has good market potential. The only reason for holding this stock is the likelihood of a takeover by a larger and financially stronger company - then too the new company is not likely to offer a very high price to shareholders in case of an aggressive takeover. This stock is useless for prudent portfolio management. Any stocks held should be sold at the beat out possible price.World Point Terminals, Inc. ... They provide storage, blending, and transportation of crude oil, refined petroleum products, and other liquids to their customers. The companys center raze terminals store residual oils, such as liquid asphalt and heavy fuels and lights oils, such as gasoline, diesel, and heating oil. It also provides crude oil storage services through its south riding point terminal facility. In addition, the company, through a joint venture, operates a fleet of tugs providing marine services5. The company was founded in 1942. The companys stock writ of execution has been good. Some of the key performance indicators are PE ratio of 21.2, EPS $7.80 52-week high $26.50 52-week low $13.68 and present price $15.00 (January 9, 2008 close). We observe that the movement of the stock take place in a narrow call up and is mostly linked to the S&P Index as indicate by a beta of 0.966.Some of the key developments announced by the company in recent times are Financial Reports for the third quarter and nine months ended June 30, 2007 reported7. World Point Terminals Inc. Announces Earnings Results for the First Quarter cease March 31, 2007World Point Terminals Declares Extraordinary Dividend Payable on December 15, 2006The latest financial report is heartening for the investor and performance on all fronts has been good. clear up profit margin is up to 30.51% for the quarter and 28.65% for the first nine months as compared to 24.41 for 2006. Return on equity is up from 10.07% in 2006 to 25.35% for the quarter the year to ensure return of 11.98% reflects the temporary s etbacks the company had in the first six months and it appears to be emerging out of its troubles.The extraordinary dividend (the
Tuesday, June 11, 2019
Object data modelling - Essay Examplean online, web-based system that could allow their customers to (i) search for the availability and fares for the flight to the desired destination, (ii) brand payments securely by means of a third-party payment system in order to book the tickets for the desired flight, (iii) view the real-time seating arrangement with available position and select the desired seat in order to self-check-in, and (iv) print out the boarding card. PART I ANALYSIS REPORT 1. apply-Cases & Use-Case Diagrams Use cases and use-case diagrams are the UML features for company and analysis of substance abuser-centric requirements. A use case can be defined as a particular purpose that can be achieved by the user (or say, actor) through the system (Chonoles & Schardt, 2003). A use-case diagram depicts a sequence of interactions between the actor and the system (Gomaa, 2011). 1.1. An Overview Use Case Model As shown in fig 1, following are major use cases of the Ticket Booking and Self-Check-In System Major Use Case 1 Search the desired flight aft(prenominal) logging on to the Happy Tours website, the customer can search for the availability and fares for the flights to the desired destination. In order to carry out the search, the customers moldiness give mandatory information to the system which includes personal details, the departure airport, the destination airport, intended outbound flight date and time. The customer may also provide optional information the date and time for return trip, to make the search more accurate. Assumption The search result lists flights with available seats in other(a) words, if all the seats in the flight are booked then that flight wont appear in the search result. Major Use Case 2 Book the ticket Once the customer has instal the desired flight, she can move on to the booking process where she makes the payment through a third-party secure payment system. If the payment gets successfully processed, an autom ated confirmation email along with the receipt is sent out by the system to the email address provided by the customer. Major Use Case 3 Self-Check-In The customer can opt to perform self-check-in the booked flight anytime but 24 hours earlier to the scheduled flight time. To self-check-in, the customer must search for the flight either through the booked flight number and booking reference number. If the flight is found and the customers booking is verified successfully, the system displays the real-time seating arrangement to the customer. The available seats are shown in blue color, while those already reserved are displayed in gray color. The customer can click on any one available seat to choose it, and then occur to either
Monday, June 10, 2019
Critical overview of the enforcement of foreign arbitral awards in Saudi Arabia - harangue ExampleThe onset of globalization, which is characterized by the drastic integration of international trade into one single market, further underscored this as trade disputes and disagreements between countries emerge with the increment in international commerce. According to Lu, Verheyen and Perera, arbitration has been the most common dispute resolution mechanism today both in the international market and among parties that make out business with sovereign states that the enforceability of awards has become increasingly important and practical.1 (p. 163-164) According to FINRA, parties may even prefer arbitration than a juridical process because the process is instant(prenominal) and more effective.2 Currently, the multilateral arbitration mechanism that most states are subjected to is the Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards of 1958 former(a)wise known as the juvenile York Convention. As of 2009, 142 out of the 192 members of the United Nations signed the convention. The majority of global trading organizations such as the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the North American relinquish Trade Association (NAFTA) also accede to this convention. It mandates all courts of the ratifying states to enforce and recognize private agreements and arbitral awards make in the territory of a State other than the State where the recognition and enforcement of such awards are sought, and arising out of differences between persons, whether physical or legal.3 Saudi Arabia has been receptive of foreign arbitration awards in the late(prenominal) and rarely elevated disputes to international fora but its courts do not automatically endorse foreign judgments.4 In April 19, 1994, the country signed the convention. Some changes have been realised with regards to enforcement of arbitration awards. When Saudi signed the convention, a royal decree (No . M/11 of 16/7/1414) was released, which provided that recognition and enforcement of foreign awards should be limited to those made in the territory of States, which have also acceded thereto.5 This among other factors such as the persistence of Islamic virtue and the effects it entail in doing business in the country has made the situation complicated and at times problematic particularly in terms of the enforcement of arbitral awards. This problem would be investigated by this research, with the sign expectation that there are numerous variables that hinder and limit such enforcement particularly in the religious and bureaucratic spheres. 3.0 Scope of the Study In move the research objective, this research would focus on two important conventions that Saudi is party to the Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards of 1958 and the Riyadh Convention. These mechanisms would be used as the standards by which arbitration awards enforcement are either successful or a failure exclusively in the Saudi experience. 4.0. Methodology Since this is a descriptive and analytical research, this study will not use models for empirical inquiries. Instead, this researcher will use a combination of black-letter doctrinal analysis and law in context approaches. The idea is to capture the complexity of having to discuss the general subject of
Sunday, June 9, 2019
Event Article Summary - Essay ExampleThe article co-authored by Yu-Pin Wei and Yu-Chun Huang presents the findings of the study that analyzes intercontinental conference sustenance value. The research applied self-administered online questionnaire to try on varied concerns and presents concrete facts. The analysts acknowledge that a states excellence in international exhibitions and conventions outlines prosperity towards internationalization (Yu-Ping Wei & Yu-Chun Huan, 2013). A vibrant tourism sector facilitates the economic growth. In addition, quality sustenance ensures a pleased and frequent consumer base in the restaurant business and attendees at international conferences.The article highlights food quality determinants that include taste, appearance, cleanliness, temperature, serving portion, variety, and freshness. The authors proceed to link the food attributes with satisfaction at international conferences by reviewing relevant literatures. The mentioned gaps and findi ngs by other authors further stamp the importance of the food attribute (Yu-Ping Wei & Yu-Chun Huan, 2013). Moreover, food variety is most critical in international conferences. In line with the mentioned characteristics, planners are unendingly seeking new styles to improve their services and attract more customers. Other notable areas of concern for international conferences comprise of energizing and stimulating menu, special dietetical alternatives, and networking platforms. Therefore, integration of all the features facilitates countrys success and enhances the attractiveness for similar conferences.According to the study findings, the determining factors for international food quality encompass food content quality, menu selection, conference specific features, and local food experience. Hence, food quality performance positively correlates with overall food service satisfaction.The article concludes by giving the differential perspectives of the future of international
Saturday, June 8, 2019
Facial realisation Biometrics EssayTraditional personal denomination and authentication methods always have the danger of being stolen, duplicated or forgotten. Hence, biometrics was introduced as an identification and authentication technology, where physical features would be used for recognizing a person. This technology uses many features for unique identification like fingerprints, submit, irises and voice. Fingerprints are by far the most popular techniques used for i8dentification, because of their traditional use in forensics.However, facial expression light is considered to be the more direct, friendly and convenient method for identification as compared to fingerprint identification. This has made face cognizance governance as the second most widely used biometric technology after fingerprinting with a projected revenue of $429 million in 2007, according to Raicu Strandburg (2005). This growth in the use of this technology is attributed to the sharp rise in the number of digital cameras and camcorders and illogicalness superintendence cameras.The purpose of this paper is to analyze this technology, explain its basic principle, look into the limitations of the technology and the research work being done in this field. Face Recognition Face recognition consists of two steps face detection and mend features extraction and face recognition. Figure below shows a flowchart of the face recognition system Fig -1 Flow chart of a basic face recognition system (Zhang, 2000) Face Detection and Location This step checks if the given examine or image sequence includes faces.It yes, then it locates the position of the faces and segments each face from the background Features extraction and face recognition This step checks the various features that distinguish divers(prenominal) individuals. It figures whether the people in the image are the given person or if he / she are in the database. Needless to say, the face recognition system depends upo n the stimulus of the system. The importance of the input and picture background is explained by Zhang (2000) by giving the following example. The picture taken during log in on a system and passing custom are controlled.That is to say the background is uniform for the images or image sequences. The pose, orientation etc is also known and well controlled. This makes the process of face recognition is accurate and faster. However, in case of an input environment which is universal for all situations, there might be number of faces and also a complex background. The location of the face and its size is not known, the illumination on the different faces in a picture is different and their expressions might be different too.In such cases, the face detection and location is difficult. Face recognition freighter be made difficult due to different expressions, orientations and age, making the process of feature extraction and face recognition all the more difficult (Zhang, 2000) One imp ortant parameter in the evaluation of a face-processing system is the performance evaluation. The basic meter parameters are the same as that for pattern recognition system FA i. e. bogus acceptance or false positive and FR i. e. false rejection or false negative.As in case of a pattern recognition system, an ideal face-recognition system should have very low scores of FA and FR, but a virtual(a) system usually makes trade-offs between these two factors. History of Face Processing Systems Development According to Zhao Chellappa (2006), the earliest work on face recognition can be traced to the early 1950s in psychology and 1960s in engineering literature. However, the research on automatic machine recognition of faces started in seventies after the work of Kanade and Kelly.For over 30 years extensive research has been conducted on various aspects of face recognition by humans and machines. During early and middle 1970s typical pattern-classification techniques using measured at tribute of features for instance the distances between important points in faces or profiles were used. In 1980s, the work in this field remained generally dormant. The interest in this field was renewed in 1990s due to an increase in commercial opportunities, availability of real-time hardware and emergence of surveillance related applications.During this time the research was focused on how to make the face-recognition systems fully automatic by tackling various underlying problems like localization of a face in a given image or a video clip and extraction of features such as eyes, mouth etc (Zhao Chellappa, 2006) Applications of Face processing The applications of face processing vary, leading to different features extraction and face recognition. For instance, one application is the face verification, which means that the person is who he claims to be. This is used in places like banks for identity confirmation.Another application is to check if the person exists in the datab ase and if yes than which one. This is known as face recognition and used in surveillance systems in offices. A variance of this is when we wish to have a list of candidates with a specific set of specified features. This is used in the police department (Zhang, 2000) The table below gives any(prenominal) applications of face processing including detection and tracking, recognition of identity and expressions, and also personalized realistic rendering (Zhao Chellappa, 2006).
Friday, June 7, 2019
African Migration EssayThe African origin of early modern humans 200,000150,000 years ago is now well documented, with archaeologic data suggesting that a major migration from tropical east Africa to the Levant took place between 130,000 and 100,000 years ago via the presently hyper-arid Saharan-Arabian desert. The path out of East Africa leads across North Africa, by dint of the Nile corridor, and across the Red Sea, or across the Indian Ocean and the strait of Bab el Mandeb to the Arabian peninsula and beyond to Eurasia. Most of this interconnected land mass of the so-called Old World, the continental area encompassing Africa, Europe, and Asia, received migrants from East Africa by about 1. 5 million years ago.This migration was dependent on the situation of wetter climate in the region. Whereas there is good read that the southern and central Saharan-Arabian desert experienced increased monsoon precipitation during this period, no unequivocal evidence has been rig for a corresponding rainfall increase in the northern part of the migration corridor, including the Sinai-Negev land bridge between Africa and Asia.The major feature of world populations through time is their increasing numbers. It is likely that many early human migrations resulted from the pressure of such demographic increases on limited food resources disease, drought, famine, war, and natural disaster run into among the most important ca examples of early human migrations. Approximately 100,000 years ago, the first migrations of Homo sapiens out of their African homeland likely coincided with the ability to use spoken language and to control fire. Over the next 87,000 years humans migrated to every continent, encompassing a wide variety of natural environments. The Americas were the last continents to be reached by Homo sapiens, about 13,000 years ago.Why these earliest migrants left Africa to colonize the world is a complex, important question. The answer is likely to be found in a web of interrelated factors centered around human behavior, specifically behavior selected to reduce risk and increase the individuals fitness for survival. Calculated migration essential have resulted from information sharing, alliance building, memory, and the ability to negotiate all skills that necessarily accompanied increasingly complex social and cultural groups. The increasing complexity of cosmos inevitably led hominids out of Africa, resulting in a global distribution of diverse human groups.Increasing population may have prodded the migration of some groups. build up with the attributes of culture, the distinctive, complex patterns of behavior shared by human groups, humans eventually adapted to and conquered virtually all global environments. Whatever the nature of human origins, whenever or wherever human societies and cultures first appeared, the peopling of our globe has been a product of migration from place to place. Given the small numbers of people and the vas t distances they traversed, and considering their technologically limited modes of transportation, the performance of people around the globe seems miraculous.The examples of global colonization described below depended on interactions between people and between people and their environments. Gradually, sometime during the Middle match Age (perhaps 100,000 to 200,000 years ago), distinct patterns of interaction among humans and between them and the landscapes in which they lived emerged. Because the distinctive physical and social environments to which humans adapted were themselves constantly changing, cultures too continually changed. That early humans acquired technological and social skills can be inferred from widespread evidence of their material culturestone tools and utensils, carved figurines, rock and cave art, and the like, date from about 40,000 years agowhich has been found in most parts of the globe.The development of language unquestionably furthered the social and technological evolution of humans and facilitated systems of reciprocality and social exchange. For example, the division of labor in food production and the exchange and transportation of goods and products were greatly expedited by speech. Being able to assign unalike tasks to different individuals furthered cooperation and fueled the processes of social and cultural evolution.http//www.learner.org/courses/worldhistory/unit_readings_3.html http//www.learner.org/courses/worldhistory/unit_overview_3.html
Thursday, June 6, 2019
Hong Kong Fitness EssayWe expect to be opening our newest center in Causeway bay which has the largest cater of any center. They will provide the greatest service and suitable advices of gym to our members, helping them get fit faster and tarry fit longer. I weigh that it would be the best and one of a kind gymnasium in Hong Kong, said Joyce Ng, CEO of Hong Kong Fitness. We are pleased to be the guests of ribbon cutting and study opportunity to visit this 1,000 square-meter gym, said by James Lane and Betty Tang. After speech, visitors dissolve visit the facilities and join free yoga classes.The center has dedicated areas for training and yoga classes. Visitors can also try advanced electronic fitness equipment out, such(prenominal) as running machine and exercise bike. The newest center provides over 18 training and yoga classes, such as jazzercise, boxing and dance classes, opening 24hours a day, 7 days a week. It is convenient to people who are busy in the daytime. Perso nal training, diet and health care planning, babysitting services are also available.About Hong Kong FitnessEstablished in April, 2010, Hong Kong Fitness is the most popular fitness community in Asia and presently has over 188 locations in 15 Asian cities. The mission of Hong Kong Fitness is to promote health and wellness in the community. Hong Kong Fitness not solo offers a variety of health and fitness programs, but also has advanced electronic fitness equipment in order to helps its members to get fit faster and stay fit longer.
Wednesday, June 5, 2019
Causes of the afghan Civil WarMohammad Haseeb DaudzaiWho destroyed Kabul? The sheepskin coat Civil War which started in 1989 and barricade in 1992 was virtuoso of the bloodiest and most destructive wars in Afghan history. This war had two mannikins. The first phase was fought among the Afghan government and the mujahideen, and the second phase was fought between different parties of the mujahadin. The Afghan Civil War which resulted in more than 100,000 deaths and the destruction of Kabul was caused by various factors some of which were Afghan people, Afghanistans economy, Afghan politicians and foreign involvement.First of all, Afghanistan is a multicultural country with more than ten ethnic groups and more than thirty languages. Afghans have some differences in their culture, too. The majority of Afghans fall out either of the two schools of fiqh (schools of Islamic law) namely Jafari and Hanafi. The literacy rate is also very low in Afghanistan. These cultural differences, religious issues and low literacy rate make racialism a common phenomenon amongst the people and its very easy for anyone to provoke a war in Afghanistan. In 1992, racists from different ethnic groups started inviting their ethnic groups to involvement against other ethnic groups, so they could gain office staff in Afghanistan.The economy of Afghanistan was very weak in 1989 when the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was leaving Afghanistan. Unemployment r separatelyed its peak. Although Dr. Najibullah mean different strategies for making a stable economy in Afghanistan, but because gas wells were under the control of the Mujahedeen, the government was completely dependent on the USSR aid, hence most of those strategies failed. As a result of unemployment, people started starving in some split of Kabul, so they started protesting against the government in Kabul. These protests gave the Mujahedeen a good excuse for attacking Kabul which marked the first phase of the Afg han Civil War.Back in 1980s when the USSR had full control of Afghanistan, 8 parties were formed in opposition to the Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) which was directly supported and under the influence of the Soviet Union. All these eight parties called themselves Mujahedeen (Holy warriors). These parties fought against the USSR for nine years. After nine years of fighting in Afghanistan, the USSR lost the war to the Mujahedeen and were forced to withdraw their forces from Afghanistan. In 1989, before leaving Afghanistan, the USSR selected Dr. Najibullah to be the president of Afghanistan after they left. Dr. Najibullah was a member of the PDPA, hence his government was not acceptable to the Mujahedeen and they continued to fight, which provoked a civil war between Afghan army and the Afghan Mujahedeen. More than 20,000 Afghans were killed in this first phase of the Afghan Civil War. In 1992 Dr. Najibullah resigned from his position. Afghan warlords knew Dr. Najib would finally resign and every one of them valued to take his place so they organized a gathering in Peshawar, Pakistan. This gathering resulted in forming a new government and a cabinet which was supposed to take power after Dr. Najibullah resigned. Additionally, Ahmad Shah Masood formed a supervising council k like a shotn as Shura e Nazar, which was composed of 120 military generals from different parts of northern Afghanistan, to supervise the activities of the upcoming government. In 1992, the new government gained full control of Kabul and major parts of Afghanistan. Sibghatullah Mujadeedi was appointed as the new president of Afghanistan, but due to his poor leadership skills he was soon replaced by Burhanuddin Rabbani. Rabbani was a member of Shura e Nazar and except Tajik warlords no one wanted him to be the President of Afghanistan. After a month, the second and bloodiest phase of the Afghan Civil War began. More than 50,000 civilians were killed only in Kabul and it was divided into different parts, each part controlled by a different party. As an example Kart e Parwan district was controlled by Ahmad Shah Masoods forces and only Tajik people lived there, Taimani district was controlled by Abdul Ali Mazaris forces and only Hazara people lived there and if anyone from Kart e Parwan dared to go to Taimani or vice versa, the opposite party would kill him. After two months of Rabbanis government the Mujahedeen started firing rockets across the streets of Kabul as result no one was safe anywhere in Kabul. Meanwhile Gulbudin Hekmatyar, who was supported by Pakistan and Saudi Arabia, wanted to be the president of Afghanistan, hence he started fighting the government and Abdul Ali Mazari joined him.The Civil War in Afghanistan was part of the Cold War. According to George Crile, the Central newsworthiness Agency (CIA) launched Operation Cyclone to fund the Mujahedeen against the USSR. In 1980 the amount of these funds reached $30 million per year and in 1987 this amount rose to $630 million per year. The CIA also provided weapons including Type-56 rifles and FIM-92 stingers to the Mujahedeen. The first stinger which proved to be a very effective weapon, was launched in 1986 near Jalalabad by the Mujahedeen, hence 500 additional stingers were provided to the Mujahedeen by the CIA. Pakistan also started supporting the Mujahedeen which resulted in the USSR providing additional AK 47s to the Afghan army. The USSR also provided more than 2500 SCUD missiles to the Afghan government. Dr. Najibullah used the SCUDs against Pakistan and gave the AK 47s to the Afghan army. Hundreds of missiles were fired on the brink between Afghanistan and Pakistan as a response to Pakistans support of the Mujahedeen and the US weapons supplies to the Mujahedeen that came through Pakistan. In 1992, Dr. Najibullah resigned. Dr. Najibs resignation marked the end of the first phase of the Afghan Civil War. Pakistan continued supporting Gulbudin Hekmatyar again st the Afghan government and asked him to keep fighting against the government till he gained full power in Kabul and replaced Rabbani. Saudi Arabia also started supporting Hekmatyar. The second phase of the War began after Hekmatyar started shelling Kabul. Relations between Shura e Nazar and General Abdul Rasheed Dostom who now had the full support of Uzbekistan, had soured and Dostom had to leave Kabul. After leaving Kabul, Dostom started shelling Kabul from the gates of Kabul. More than 50,000 civilian were killed in Kabul in contrivance shelling (1) (also called rockety koor (blind rockets).To conclude, during these two phases of the Afghan civil war, which lasted from 1989 to 1992, more than 100,000 Afghans were killed, thousands of Kabul citizens were injured and lost their homes and nothing was seen in Kabul except bombarded buildings and signs of different weapons used during the war. The Afghan Civil war was caused by four major factors, the Afghan people, Afghan economy, Afghan politicians and foreign powers.
Tuesday, June 4, 2019
Important Characteristics Of The Wigig Technology Computer Science EssayWireless Gigabit is an up-and-coming technology expected to change radio receiver connectivity of up to 7Gbps in entropy, uncover and audio applications. The composition sponsoring this technology is the Wireless Gigabit Alliance.Features of WigigSome of the important characteristics of the Wigig technology be listed belowWigig is capable of providing a radio mesh which its speed is up to 7Gbps, while the fastest current 802.11n has theoretically the grittyest speeds up to 600Mbps.WiGig is operated at 60gigahertz which allows a wider sway and supports super-fast conveying speeds. It stooge transfer data between 1Gbps to 7Gbps, 60 times more than Wi-Fi.Wigig can be able to support the Tri band devices.WiGig is a multi-gigabit communion technology which is an ideal received for the use of streaming HD video so it can display full 1080 pixels of the PC to the TV via a wireless meshwork.How does Wigi g worksWigig willing primarily be employ within a genius room to provide wireless connectivity between home entertainment equipment. It will enable very fast data transfers and streaming media which is 10 times speedy than the old wireless technologies, in addition to wireless continuatives for cameras, laptops.DeliverablesTechnical IssuesCurrent and future expectations of WiGig deployment.Types of challenges or difficulties ar at that place related to WiGig execution of instruments.Kinds of organisations energy need these novel standards. protective cover IssuesDiscuss and analyse the pledge issues that might arise due to wide deployment of WiGig Alliance. (802.11 security issue and the Galois/ replica Mode of the AES encoding algorithm)Discuss and analyse cross shape security framework in Wireless LAN deployment. Is that framework will improve security in WLAN or non.Technical IssuesCurrent Wigig deploymentThe industry standard relevant to Wigig is IEEE 802.11ad. Dra ft 1.0 of the specification was published in Jan 2011. Per the draft standard, signals will shoot the unlicensed 60 GHZ frequence band and all 802.11 ad-compliant devices will provide backward compatibility with 802.11 standard. As a result, tri-band devices will operate at 2.4, 5.0 and 60 gigacycle per second.The Wigig specification includes master(prenominal) features to maximize performance, minimize instrumentation complexity and cost, enable backward compatibility with existing Wi-Fi and provide advanced security. unwrap features includeSupport for data transmittance rates up to 7 Gbps.Wigig operates at 60 GHz band that means it has much more spectrum available, the impart argon much wider, enable multi-gigabit data rates. Wigig defines 4 channels, to each one 2.16 GHz wide which is 50 times wider than the channels available in 802.11n.Seamless switching between 2.4/5/60 GHz bandsBased on IEEE 802.11, Wigig provides native Wi-Fi support and enables devices which has tr i-band radios to be able to transparently switch between 802.11 cyberspace operating in any frequency band including 2.4/5/60 GHzSupport for beamforming, a technology which maximize the signal strength and enable robust communication at distances beyond 10 meters.WiGig is integrated a technology, called Beamforming. It allows the radio beam is shot to the right target with the best performance minimize waste in the process of transmission. Thus, WiGig uses dynamism more efficient than traditionalistic Wi-Fi connection.Beamforming employs directional antennas to reduce interference and focus the signal between two devices into a concentrated beam. This allows faster data transmission over longer distances.Beamforming is defined within the PHY and MAC tiers.During the beamforming process, two devices establish communication and then fine-tune their antenna settings to improve the quality of directional communication until there is enough capacity for the desired data transmission. The devices can quickly establish a new communications pathway using beams that reflect glowering walls when an obstacle blocks the line of sight between two devices or if someone walks between them.http//genk2.vcmedia.vn/N0WoyYblO3QdmZFKPMtKnadHAHTevz/Image/2012/04/2_6a565.jpgAdvanced security using the Galois/Counter Mode of the AES encryption algorithm.AES-GCM is an authenticated encryption algorithm designed to provide some(prenominal) authentication and privacy. Developed by David A McGrew and John Viega, it uses universal hashing over a binary Galois field to provide authenticated encryption.GCM was designed argumentationally as a way of supporting very high data rates, since it can take reinforcement of pipelining and parallel processing techniques to bypass the normal limits imposed by feedback MAC algorithms. This allows authenticated encryption at data rates of many ten of Gbps, permitting high grade encryption and authentication on placement which previously could n ot be fully protected.Different types of layers take part in the working of the wireless gigabit technology, physical layer (PHY) deals with all the devices of low and high power and maintain the status of communication.Protocol adaption layers (PALs) are being developed to support specific system interfaces including data buses for PC peripherals and display interfaces for HDTVs, monitors and projectors.Supplements and ext blocks the 802.11 culture medium Access Control(MAC) layer and is backward compatible with the IEEE 80211 standardPower ManagementWigig devices can take advantage of a new enumerationd access mode to reduce power consumption. Two devices communicating with each other via a directional link may schedule the periods during which they communicate in between those periods, they can sleep to save power.802.11 ad draft standard is compared to other wireless technologyhttp//images-news.easyvn.net/upload/2011/12/08/ obligate/cong-nghe-khong-day-60-ghz-cho-docking-usb- hdmi_3.jpgWigig in futureWGA has announced the prepare of a new wireless connection standard, Wigig 1.1 ready for certification. The Wigig 1.1 is added 2 new PALs specifications, the Wigig Display mention (WDE) and Wigig Serial appendage (WSE) to supplement the previously published Wigig Bus Extension (WBE) and MAC/PHY specifications.Structure of WigigWigig is defined in 2 layers based on IEEE 802.11. They are personal and Medium Access Control layers. These layers enable native support for IP networking over 60Ghz band. They make simpler and less expensive to produce devices that can communicate over both Wigig and existing Wi-Fi using tri-band radios (2.4GHz, 5GHz and 60 GHz).http//farm3.static.flickr.com/2390/5791077356_c2146fb4f0.jpgPhysical LayerThe physical layer of the 802.11 ad standardized 2 wireless data exchange techniquesOrthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) wholeness carrier (SC)The 802.11ad divides the 60GHz band into four 2.16 GHz wide channels. Data rates of up to 7 Gbits/s are possible using OFDM with disparate intonation schemes. A single channel rendition for low power operation is available and can deliver a speed up to 4.6 Gbits/s. These wide channels enable WIgig to support applications that require extremely fast communication, much(prenominal) as uncompressed video transmission.The PHY in 802.11ad is split into Physical Layer Convergence Protocol (PLCP) and the Physical Medium Dependent (PMD) sub layers. The PLCP parses data units transmitted/received using various 802.11 media access techniques. The PMD performs the data transmission/reception and modulation/demodulation directly accessing look under the guidance of the PLCP. The 802.11 ad MAC layer to great extend is affected by the nature of the media. For instance, it implements a relatively complex for the second layer fragmentation of PDUs.Medium Access Control (MAC) layerWigig shares MAC layer with existing 802.11 networks enables session switching between 8 02.11 networks operating in the 2.4 GHz, 5GHz and 60 GHz bands, resulting in uninterrupted wireless data communications. The 802.11 ad MAC layer has been extended to include beamforming support and address the 60 GHz specific aspects of channel access, synchronization, association and authentication.Protocol Adaption Layer (PALs)PAL is a layer added to network transmissions to help adapt to older standards. It allows wireless implementations of key computer and consumer electronics interfaces over 60GHz Wigig networks. The version 1.0 A/V and I/O protocol adaption layer (PAL) specifications perplex been developed to support specific system interfaces including extensions for PC peripherals and display interfaces for HDTVs, monitors and projectors.The Wigig Bus Extension (WBE)Define high-performance wireless implementations of widely utilise computer interfaces over 60GHz.Enable multi-gigabit wireless connectivity between any two devices, such as connection to storage and other hig h-speed peripheralsThe Wigig Display Extension (WDE)Support wireless transmission of audio/visual dataEnable wireless DisplayPort and other display interfaces that include the High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection 2.0 feature.Offers key A/V applications, such as the transmission of lightly compressed or uncompressed video from a computer or digital camera to an HDTV, monitor or projector.http//img84.imageshack.us/img84/2195/fig2m.jpgModulation Coding Scheme (MCS)The specification supports two types of modulation and coding schemes, which provide different benefits. Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) supports communication over longer distances with greater delay spreads, providing more flexibility in handling obstacles and reflected signals. The single carrier, suited to lower applications, achieves a data rate up to 4.6 Gbits/s, while OFDM enables 7 Gbits/s.Usage ModelsWigig has a high compatibility and is used for many purposes.Wigig can act as an alternative m ethod which is used for replacing old connectivity standards such as USB, DisplayPort, PCIe and HDMI. In addition, it is backward compatible with most devices which using 802.11 connectivity in the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz bands. The main exit of Wigig is to connect home entertainment devices together tablets, smartphones, PC, TV and more.http//images-news.easyvn.net/upload/2011/12/08/article/cong-nghe-khong-day-60-ghz-cho-docking-usb-hdmi_2.jpgChallenges or difficulties are there related to WiGig implementations.The biggest technical challenge is that these networks will operate in much higher frequencies, around 60 GHz. The higher the frequency is, the greater the propagation loss over distance. Another challenge is 60 GHz radio are absorbed by wood, bricks, human body and particularly paint are far more opaque to 60 GHz waves. Thus, Wigig is most suitable for in-room applications.Attenuation of various materials by frequencyBesides that, the beamforming of compliant equipment postula te to be within line of sight of receiving devices in run to work well. Even a person stepping between two communicating devices can break the signal. With these weaknesses, they will prevent Wigig from being implemented popularly in the future. Moreover, most today devices only if support 802.11 a/g/n it will take time to replace all these devices with new devices which support 802.11ad standard.Kinds of organisations might need these new standardsWiGig is a multi-gigabit communication technology which is an ideal standard for the use of streaming HD video so it can display full 1080 pixels of the PC to the TV via a wireless network. In addition, its speed is up to 7 Gbps which is very useful for so many organizations such asMultimedia organization (newspapers, advertisement, movie)Financial organization (Bank, office, tax)Education organization (TAFE, university)Medical organization (Hospital)IT organization (Intel, Dell, Apple etc.)GovernmentMilitarySecurity IssuesDue to Wigig is based on IEEE 802.11 standards it has the comparable security issues with 802.11 a/b/g/n.Easy to accessWireless LANs are easy to find. To enable clients to find them, networks must transmit Beacon frames with network parameters. The information needed to join a network is also the information needed to launch an attack on a network. Beacon frames a not processed by any privacy functions, which means that your 802.11 network and its parameters are available for anybody with an 802.11 card. Attackers with high-gain antennas can find networks from in force(p)by roads or buildings and may launch attacks without having physical access to your facility. beginning Enforce Strong Access ControlEnsuring that wireless networks are subject to conceptive access control can apologise the risk of wireless network deployment. earningss should place access points outside of security perimeter devices such as firewalls, and administrators should consider using VPNs to provide access to the bodily network. Strong exploiter authentication should be deployed, preferably using new products based on the IEEE 802.1x standard. 802.1x defines new frame types for drug user-based authentication and leverages existing enterprise user databases, such as RADIUS.Rogue Access PointsEasy access to wireless LANs is coupled with easy deployment. When combined, these two characteristics can cause headaches for network administrators and security officers. each user can run to a nearby computer store, purchase an access point, and connect it to the corporate network without authorization. Rogue access deployed by end users poses great security risks. End users are not security experts, and may not be aware of the risks posed by wireless LANs. Many deployments that have been logged and mapped by war drivers do not have any security features enabled, and a significant fraction have no changes from the default configuration.Solution veritable(a) Site AuditsLike any other network technol ogy, wireless networks require vigilance on the part of security administrators. The obvious way to find self-appointed networks is to do the same thing that attackers do use an antenna and look for them so that you find unlicensed networks before attackers exploit them. Physical site audits should be conducted as frequently as possible.Unauthorized Use of ServiceSeveral war drivers have published results indicating that a clear majority of access points are put in service with only minimal modifications to their default configuration. Unauthorized users may not necessarily obey your service providers terms of service, and it may only take one spammer to cause your ISP to revoke your connectivity.Solution Design and Audit for Strong AuthenticationThe obvious defence against unauthorized use is to prevent unauthorized users from accessing the network. Strong, cryptographically protected authentication is a precondition for authorization because access privileges are based on user i dentity. VPN solutions deployed to protect traffic in pass through across the radio link provide strong authentication.MAC Spoofing and Session Hijacking802.11 networks do not authenticate frames. Every frame has a source address, but there is no guarantee that the station sending the frame actually put the frame in the air. Just as on traditional Ethernet networks, there is no protection against forgery of frame source addresses. Attackers can use spoofed frames to redirect traffic and corrupt ARP tables. At a much simpler level, attackers can observe the MAC addresses of stations in use on the network and adopt those addresses for malicious transmissions.Attackers can use spoofed frames in active attacks as well. In addition to hijacking sessions, attackers can exploit the lack of authentication of access points. Access points are identified by their broadcasts of Beacon frames. Any station which claims to be an access point and broadcasts the right service set identifier (SSID, also commonly called a network name) will appear to be part of an authorized network. Attackers can, however, slow pretend to be an access point because nothing in 802.11 requires an access point to prove it really is an access point. At that point, the attacker could potentially slue credentials and use them to gain access to the network through a man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack.Solution Adopt Strong Protocols and Use ThemUsing methods based on dishonour Layer Security (TLS), access points will need to prove their identity before clients provide authentication credentials, and credentials are protected by strong cryptography for transmission over the air.Session hijacking can be prevented only by using a strong cryptographic protocol such as IPsec.Using strong VPN protocols which require the use of strong user authentication with 802.1x.Traffic Analysis and Eavesdropping802.11 provides no protection against attacks which passively observe traffic. The main risk is that 802.11 do es not provide a way to take prisoner data in transit against eavesdropping. Frame headers are always in the clear and are visible to anybody with a wireless network analyser.Security against eavesdropping was supposed to be provided by Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP). However, it protects only the initial association with the network and user data frames. Management and control frames are not encrypted or authenticated by WEP, leaving an attacker wide latitude to disrupt transmissions with spoofed frames.Solution Perform Risk AnalysisWhen addressing the threat of eavesdropping, the key decision is to balance the threat of using only WEP against the complexity of deploying a more proven solution.If wireless LAN is being used for sensitive data, WEP may very well be insufficient for your needs. Strong cryptographic solutions like SSH, SSL, and IPsec were designed to transmit data securely over public channels and have proven resistant to attack over many years, and will almost certai nly provide a higher level of security.Key Problems with WEPRepeat in key stream which allows easy decryption of data for a moderately sophisticated adversary.Weak implementation of the RC4 algorithm leads to an efficient attack that allows key recoverySubject to brute force attacks (Short Keys)Easily compromised keys (Shared keys/No Key management)Message modification is possibleNo user authentication occursSubject to Man in the Middle attacksWPABenefitsImproved CryptographyStrong Network access controlWill Support 802.1x, EAP, EAP-TLS, Radius, and Pre-Placed KeysKey ManagementReplay ProtectionProvides for data and header unityFlawsWhile (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) TKIP (a message integrity check algorithm is to verify the integrity of the packets) Michael significantly improve WEP security, design limitations result in cryptographic weaknesses.Limitations of Michael to retrieve the keystream from short packets to use for re-injection and spoofing.WPA2BenefitsStrong Cryptog raphySupport for Legacy EquipmentStrong Network Access ControlWill Support 802.1x, EAP, EAP-TLS, Radius, and Pre-Placed KeysKey ManagementReplay ProtectionProvides for data and Header IntegrityRoaming SupportSecurity issue there is a flaw that was discovered. It is called WPS (wireless protected setup) it is the little initial setup that most new/newer routers come with. The WPS is a button which we need to hit when we want to initially set up connection. That is the security flaw thats used now to crack wpa/wpa2. There is a free program to exploit this flaw (reaver) and it has about a 100% success rate in cracking wpa/wpa2.Galois/Counter Mode (GCM)GCM is a block cipher mode of operation providing both confidentiality and data origin authentication. It was designed by McGrew and Viega.BenefitsSupport communication speeds of 10 GbpsProvides strong encryption based on the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)Be able to implement in hardware for performance and efficiencySecurity IssuesGC M provides no message authenticationThere are some security issues if GCM mode is used incorrectly. GCM is not suited for use with short tag lengths or a very long message. The user should monitor and limit the number of unsuccessful verification attempts for each key. It is strongly recommended to use all 16 bytes for the tag, and generally no less than 8 bytes. The same length of tag must always be used for a given key. The initialization vector (IV) must be unique for each operation for a given key. Security is destroyed for all textbook encrypted with the same key if the IV is used for different plaintext. Using 12 bytes randomly generated IV is ok and so is a counter that is controlled over so that it can never be repeated.Cross layer security framework in Wireless LAN deploymentCross-layer design appears to be a suitable improvement for future contributions in the framework of WLANs able to address emerging issues related to ever-higher performance, energy consumption, mobi lity.The single layer security is often inefficient and inadequate for provisioning secure data transmission in WLAN. In generally, the security of a network is determined by the security it has over all the layers. Thus, the cross-layer security framework needs to be proposed in WLAN.The security framework may support many components like intrusion staining system, Trust framework and adapted link layer communication protocol. In order to carry out practical cross-layer security framework in WLAN, we need to followComponent based security Security measures must be provided to all the components of a protocol stack as well as to the entire network. The developers should focus on securing the entire network.Robust, simple and ductile designs Security mechanisms should construct a trustworthy system out of untrustworthy components and have the capability to detect and function when need arises. This should also support scalability. respective(a) types of active and passive attacks h ave been recorded in WLANA denial of service (DoS) attack In DoS attack, a malicious lymph node could prevent another node to go back to sleep mode which in turn causes battery depletion.Eavesdropping and invasion If no sound security measures are taken, invasion becomes fairly an easy task due to wireless communication. An adversary could easily extract useful information from the unattended nodes. Hence, a malicious user could join the network undetected by impersonating as some other legitimate node, to have access to secret data, disrupt the network operations, or survey the activity of any node in the network.Physical node tampering leading to node compromising.Forced battery exhaustion of a node.Radio muddle at the physical layer.There are some types of cross-layer securityCross-layer security design for intrusion detectionAll approaches pertaining to intrusion detection schemes have been cerebrate on routing and MAC protocols. The existing secure protocols or intrusion de tection schemes are normally presented for one protocol layer. So, the effect of these schemes is sandwiched to attacks to a particular layer. They are seldom effective to attacks from different protocol layers however, security concerns may arise in all protocol layers. It is necessary to have a cross-layer based detection framework that consolidates various schemes in various protocol layers.Cross-layer security design for power efficiencyAs previously mentioned, energy conservation is one of the native concerns for sensor networks design, so it should be considered across protocol layers from the beginning stage through subsequent stages of the design to achieve the trade-off between energy consumption, network performance and complexity, and maximize the longevity of the entire network. Our cross-layer approach can achieve this while providing network security provisioning. For instance, the carrier detection is responsible for DoS attacks. A pestiferous or malicious node can exploit then interplays in MAC layer to frequently request for channels. This not only prohibits other nodes from connecting with the destination, but also can deplete its battery energy due to frequent responses. To overcome this issue, the information can be collected from other layers and the detrimental node can be recognized and then be limited or isolated.ConclusionAfter analysing the security risks of WLAN and investigating the advantages of cross-layer security framework, I believe that the cross-layer design is a unique candidate to improve security in WLAN.SummaryWigig or 802.11ad based on the 802.11 standard is a new wireless technology which provides data rates up to 7Gbps over the unlicensed 60 GHz. It will primarily be used within a single room to provide wireless connectivity between home entertainment equipment. It will enable very fast data transfers and streaming media which is 10 times faster than the old wireless technologies. However, Wigig still has some challe nges which are the limitation of propagation loss and distance. That is why it can primarily be used within a room or an office. But Wireless Gigabit Alliance claimed that Wigig can be used beyond 10 meters by using beamforming technology in the near future.